Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn.Benjamin Franklin
Pedagogy refers to the approaches you may take to teaching. While teachers are generally free to use whatever approach they professionally feel best suits their students and themselves, sometimes groups of teachers, schools and systems decide to focus on a particular approach to teaching. While curriculum tries not to emphasise particular pedagogical approaches, Technologies Education does tend to support a Constructionist approach (as an application of Constructivism) taught through Project Based Learning, but is also supported by many online tutorials that adopt more traditional approaches such as Direct Instruction.
While there are many pedagogical approaches to teaching, in this course we will focus on the two most common approaches, used in combination, for teaching the Technologies learning area. The Constructionist learning theory supported by a Project Based Learning pedagogy, and the Instructivist learning theory supported by a Direct Instruction pedagogy and Instructional Design models.
This week we will be exploring approaches to teaching the Technologies learning area.
Working Draft - Available start of Week 3, weekly details will be developed progressively and generally completed by the Monday of the lecture/tutorial.
Project Based Learning
Project Based Learning is built into the structure of the Digital Technologies curriculum.
Project Based Learning can be approached in several different ways.
· ePBL, where the motivation is extrinsic, external to the student, is represented by worksheets or instruction guides, step by step tutorials, etc. where a problem set by the teacher, instruction guide writer, or tutorial writer, to produce a predetermined solution that students will replicate.
· iPBL, in which the focus is on intrinsic motivation, permits students to choose how they go about solving a problem, with different solutions to their peers, and can also give students the choice of the problem they will solve, and thus have not only different solutions, but solutions to different problems, than their peers.
There will usually be a progression, from ePBL to iPBL as students’ progress in grades through the Digital Technologies curriculum.
· F-2 students plan with teacher support, simple steps and follow directions to complete their own projects or manage their own role within team projects.
· In 3-6 increasing responsibility for specific roles within a project with increasing levels of collaboration and teamwork.
· By 7-8 they should be managing projects, but still with support from peers and teachers.
· By 9-10 they should fully manage projects and teams, use digital tools to support their project management, coordinate teams, and collaborate with others locally and globally.
With a shift from teacher to student project management, this changes the role of the teacher in the classroom, from instructor to facilitator.
Student understanding of how ICT can be used in solving problems should also be developed, such as digital timelines for planning and managing project stages, and communication and collaboration tools to manage group work.
Collaboration and teamwork are essential 21C skills and students need to be taught how to
work in teams, the advantages of doing so, and the roles of leadership and followership.
· In F-2 students should manage their own role within teams.
· By 3-8 students should take responsibility for specific roles within a project with increasing levels of collaboration and teamwork.
· By 9-10 students will fully manage and coordinate teams to collaborate with others locally and globally.
Students should develop an understand that teams bring:
· a broader range of skills;
· a variety of viewpoints and increased adaptability to ways of solving problems;
· can be more efficient - everyone working to their strengths; and
· can build acceptance of diversity and difference.
They should be aware of the challenges of teamwork such as resistance to change, communication difficulties, social dynamics, and general classroom management.
Positive conflict, can lead to healthy competition, spur creativity and motivate students, bring to light and highlight problems, so that they can be addressed, identify issues of importance and passion, and build self-esteem and resilience.
Team formation and dynamics can be challenging for students at all levels, but students should progressively take responsibility for these roles and develop leadership in managing them.
Team selection, based on project needs over social groupings can be supported through application processes, resumes of skills useful to the team in solving problems, assigning team leaders, student selection panels, anonymous voting processes, or external team selection bodies.
Parallels with sport and drama selection processes can assist, where the project goal is the focus.
Collaboration can include seeking out assistance, from another student's, teams, their teacher, other teachers, other adults, experts, and organisations, locally and globally.
Students should gain increasing experience in outsourcing and remixing, allocating some aspects of their project to others, and including the work of others as components of their project.
Problems should not always be framed as negatives but also opportunities to do new things, be innovative, and entrepreneurial.
Solving for X is a different way of thinking, that attempts to change the world through developing innovative solutions to significant problems, often using the latest new technologies.
· xProblems address huge problems, not simple ones;
· xSolutions propose radical new ways to address xProblems;
· xTechnologies are breakthroughs that permit new opportunities to develop xSolutions to xProblems;
· xProblems develop in scale, from issues affecting themselves, their family, or close friends, to include their classmates, neighbours, school community, local neighbourhood, country, and then to envisioning solutions at an international and global scale;
· xProblems develop in scope, from affecting only themselves, or a few people, to being useful to everyone on earth;
· xProblems develop in time-frame, from solutions to immediate needs, to those in the near future, through to those that may affect them during their lifetime, and then for future generations; and
· xSolutions develop in ambition, from making small incremental changes that slowly improve technologies and processes over time, to big, revolutionary changes.
Moonshot Thinking is envisaging a change that is 10, 100, 1000 times better than currently solutions.
Moon Shot thinking involves risk, they fail, and fail often. Schooling trains students to be risk averse, framing the taking of risks as a negative - especially through assessment. To encourage Moonshot Thinking, assessment should reward risk, and in PBL this is possible, by focusing on the process, rather than the product or solution
Students should be rewarded for identifying risks in the solutions they propose, and for taking them anyway - in the considered hope of overcoming the challenges involved and producing a solution beyond what they are certain of achieving.
Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development theory suggest learning most often occurs when students attempt to do things beyond which they already know how to do.
Teachers should set high expectations to what students might achieve, and assess in ways that reward rather than penalising students doing likewise.
Classrooms can learn from innovative industry practice, where high expectations are set - Moonshots, and while most will fail, through the process involved in trying, the learning that occurs as a result, and the outcomes from those that do succeed, they change the world.
Provide Feedback on Lesson Plans
In tutorial small groups you will provide feedback on the lesson plans shared this week.
Submit a brief summary of the feedback you received and provided during the tutorial by the next tutorial. You can use dot points. It counts 0.5% towards your Log of Learning Activities.
Attend the tutorial to further explore the concepts presented this week and practice teaching them.
Digital Technologies Lesson Plan
In tutorial small groups you will share the Digital Technologies lesson plan you have developed for this week.
Submit your lesson plans developed for this tutorial by the start of this weeks tutorial. It counts 0.25% towards your Log of Learning Activities.
Share Lesson Plans
Digital Technologies Activity
In tutorial this week we are going to explore project based learning and digital computer interfaces. Using a Makey Makey kit you are to develop a solution to a problem. The Makey Makey website can provide you with ideas, but ideally you will identify a Moonshot xProblem that a computer interface could assist in solving and think through the process of developing a solution or prototype to your problem.
- Makey Makey interface kit
- Wire connectors
- USB connector
- Play Dough
- Conductive Tape
- Sheets of Card
- Graphite pencil
Design and Technologies Activity
This week in tutorial we will explore the design cycle and the concept of iterative improvement.
Conduct research on paper plane designs, then using 3 sets of 3 different weights of paper/light cardboard, create three versions (different paper weights) of a paper plane design. Test your design using the paper plane launchers. Learn what worked and what did not, modify your designs and test again. Again, modify your designs a final time, and prepare your plane design for a final competitive flight against your peers.
Paper sheets (3 different weights)
Paper plane launchers
Preparation for Week 4
Create two lessons plans, one for Design & Technologies and one for Digital Technologies. You will share these in tutorial next week and conduct simulated teaching of your lessons. Together, these count 1% to your Log of Learning Activities if submitted before the start of next weeks tutorial.
While you are free to develop Lesson Plans on any Australian Curriculum: Technologies topics you wish, if you are stuck for ideas, prepare a Digital Technologies lesson to teach using Ozobots and Makey Makey kits, and/or prepare a Design and Technologies lesson to
Week 4 Digital Technologies Lesson Plan
In tutorial small groups you will share the Digital Technologies lesson plan you have developed for next week.
Submit your Digital Technologies lesson plan developed for the Week 4 tutorial by the start of next weeks tutorial. It counts 0.5% towards your Log of Learning Activities.
Week 4 Design and Technologies Lesson Plan
In tutorial small groups you will share the Design and Technologies lesson plan you have developed for next week.
Submit your Design and Technologies lesson plan developed for the Week 4 tutorial by the start of next weeks tutorial. It counts 0.5% towards your Log of Learning Activities.