DT3 F-2






DT3 F-2















Foundation to Year 2


Digital Technologies studies from Foundation to Year 2 builds on student understanding of computers and digital technologies they have developed in pre-school activities and at home, while retaining a strong focus on play. 

By the end of Year 2 students must have had the opportunity to design, produce and evaluate digital technology solutions to a range of problems that include the following concepts:

  • Patterns: exploring different ways of representing patterns in data; 
  • Information Systems: describing how familiar information systems are used to meet personal, classroom and family needs; 
  • Algorithms: suggesting and using a sequence of steps to decide how to solve simple problems; and
  • Online: safely use familiar digital systems when experimenting with alternative ways of displaying familiar data to convey meaning when organising and creating ideas and information, and sharing these in restricted online environments. 

Schools will generally allocate 10 hours of Digital Technologies studies per year.

One approach would be to have a design challenge each year, of 10 hours duration, covering one or two cocnepts per year.

In each design challenge, students should have opportunities to experience designing, producing and evaluating services and environments as well as products. 

Often a design challenge, particularly in younger years, will involve several teacher directed activities to scaffold student independent project based learning. For example, learning how to use a software tool or technology such as a digital camera through introductory activities before student use these skills in a design challenge. 

From Foundation to Year 2, students should complete design challenges in each of the four contexts of 

  • Patterns; (Decomposition, Pattern Recognition, Pattern Generalisation and Abstraction)
  • Information Systems; (Decomposition, Pattern Recognition, Pattern Generalisation and Abstraction)
  • Algorithms; and (Algorithm Design)
  • Online.

With an expected time allocation of 10 hours per year, it would be realistic to complete one or two design challenges each year and over the course of three years, address each of the concepts at least once.

In F–2, students begin thinking computationally by using the power of digital systems in their play and developing computational thinking skills through projects and design challenges.



Design Challenge Example

A design challenge in the concept of Patterns and Algorithms could involve:

Rube Goldburg Machine

Designing, creating and testing an innovative Rube Goldburg sequence of at least 20 steps and video a successful run (Max 3 minutes).

Challenge specifications that can be tested could include: to have the most steps in a sequence, complete a run in the quickest time, complete the sequence in the longest time, to use the most different triggers, etc.


This could address:

Digital Technologies knowledge and understanding 

Recognise and play with patterns in data and represent data as pictures, symbols and diagrams 

  • sorting objects and events based on easily identified characteristics and using digital systems to represent patterns in data, in this challenge, using a range of objects to trigger the next object in a sequence, and representing this process as data and graphs of the progression;
  • making generalisations about these data sets, recording results of Rube Goldburg machine runs in an on-screen table and talking about the results, comparing different machines and then finding patterns and reasons why some runs go more quickly or slowly; and
  • experimenting with different ways of representing patterns, for example using diagrams to show machine designs and graphs to display data about runs.

Describe how people use different information systems safely to meet personal and family communication and recreation needs 

  • sharing and describing ways that common information systems can be used to meet communication needs, producing posters, presentations and video of machine runs; and
  • sharing machine designs and runs with families and friends with video clips and posters that can be taken home or displayed safely online. 

Digital Technologies processes and production skills 

Collect, use and play with classroom data (recording run times as numerical data, still images and diagrams of machines, and video data of runs) and understand why it was collected and use digital systems to present the data 

  • locating and purposefully using visual and text data, naming photos correctly with their name and date, then searching through a class digital photo library to select an image of their machine; 
  • exploring, imagining and comparing the usefulness of different data displays, jointly creating simple column graphs and picture graphs to represent the speeds of different runs; 
  • playing with and successfully using a simple database of photographs to retrieve information; 
  • exploring and creating graphs to represent run data; 
  • using digital cameras and video cameras to collect data for a purpose; 
  • using digital systems to organise data to improve meaning, using a spreadsheet to show differences in the speeds of different runs; and 
  • collecting data and sorting it into categories, for example collecting data (photos, video and times) about fast run challenges and slow run challenges and storing and retrieving this using a simple database: a spreadsheet. 

Identify, explore, and use digital systems (hardware and software components) for personal and classroom needs 

  • playing with and using digital cameras, video cameras, timers (e.g. stop watches or timers on computers) for transferring and capturing data about student machines and the testing of these machines; 
  • exploring and using digital systems for downloading information, researching different Rube Goldburg creations on the internet; 
  • recognising that a machine system follows instructions or commands, each triggering the next action; and 
  • constructing a model of a Rube Goldburg machine. 

Follow, describe, represent and play with a sequence of steps and decisions needed to solve simple problems 

  • experimenting and playing with very simple, step-by-step procedures to explore devices; and
  • working with others to sequence events and instructions and acheive working Rube Goldburg machines.

Work with others to organise and create ideas and information in the form of text (writing about their machines), images )diagramming their designs and taking photos of the construction process) and video (of working runs) using information systems to store this data in a spreadsheet, and share these with known people (such as parents) in safe online environments 

  • using different types of data such as text, images and video to create information for sharing; 
  • planning the steps and creating text, drawings and video files to share online; and
  • participating in online environments that are safe, using a restricted website approved by teachers and parents, closed to share video of machine runs.

Design and Technology processes and production skills

Students will often also have opportunities to develop Design and Technologies processes and production skills by:

Exploring and investigating needs or opportunities for designing, and the resources needed to produce designed solutions. 

  • identifying and gathering materials, components, tools and equipment to generate personal design ideas and discussing possible designed solutions based on experience and limited research;
  • identifying one common testing method, and recording results, timing runs and recording them with video; and
  • comparing potential materials for their suitability when making a designed solution. 

Visualise, generate, develop, evaluate and communicate design ideas through a range of media including digital technologies 

  • comparing and contrasting features of existing Rube Goldbrg machines to provide new ideas;
  • communicating design ideas by sketching their design ideas manually or digitally, showing different views (top view and side view) and labels to provide details; 
  • recording a judgment about design ideas with teacher guidance, for example expressing own likes and dislikes about their design ideas.

Use design ideas, materials, components, tools and equipment to play with, plan, safely produce and evaluate designed solutions based on personal criteria for technologies contexts.

  • referring to the identified criteria, e.g. complete runs quickly or slowly, use many different trigger events, etc.;
  • use lists when planning and making, e.g. a list of material they will need, steps for making and testing the machine; 
  • use everyday materials in new ways, for example using recycled materials;
  • learn and practising a range of technical skills, for example joining techniques, trigger techniques; and
  • reflecting on the processes and challenges of designing and producing a solution and sharing these reflections using digital technologies, for example, taking photos of their design process and when testing their design. 

Note that most design challenges in Design and Technology or Digital Technologies will usually involve all aspects of the Design and Technologies processes and production skills.

In this activity students would go through the design process by completing a design challenge that would involve students approaching the problem of designing, creating and testing an innovative Rube Goldburg sequence of at least 20 steps and videoing a successful run by:

  1. Designing a solution by understanding what is required in their design brief, researching existing solutions and who designs these, creatively ideating as many possible new solutions as they can, researching and exploring the properties of different trigger events and actions, and exploring different ways that information (actions) can be transmitted;

  2. Developing a solution by following their plan, learning the processes involved in working through a series of steps, using various tools such as scissors, tape, glue, staplers, etc; and

  3. Evaluating their solution by testing to see if it works well (i.e. does not trigger by accident, fail along the way, go the fastest, or the slowest), goes through at least 20 steps, and uses different trigger mechanisms creatively. Finally they should incorporate the data from their runs into a simple database e.g. a spreadsheet and speak to how their solution meets their design brief by drawing data from this database to show why it was a good solution to the problem, presenting this data in graphs and showcasing their runs in a video.





























































Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions and Elaborations 

Digital Technologies knowledge and understanding 

Recognise and play with patterns in data and represent data as pictures, symbols and diagrams 

  • sorting objects and events based on easily identified characteristics and using digital systems to represent patterns in data, for example sorting birthdates according to their seasons and presenting the patterns using seasonal symbols; 
  • making generalisations about data sets, for example recording results of an experiment in an on-screen table and talking about the results, for example comparing different ways of travelling to school using classroom data and then finding patterns; 
  • experimenting with different ways of representing patterns, for example using materials, sounds, movements or drawing; and 
  • learning about how data are represented by changing a colour digital photograph to black and white and noting the change in file size.

Describe how people use different information systems safely to meet personal and family communication and recreation needs 

  • sharing and describing ways that common information systems can be used to meet communication needs, for example computers can be used as phones, and email allows communication between families living in different regions; 
  • recognising and discussing the need for cybersafety when using online information systems, for example recognising that shared personal information can be used for undesirable purposes by some people and that using passwords is a means of protecting identity; 
  • noticing ergonomics when children are playing with, exploring and experimenting with information systems, for example when using touch screen devices in different settings, such as outdoors or when playing a game on the floor; 
  • discussing types of existing information systems that support individual needs, for example voice tablets for people who are visually impaired; and
  • sharing ideas about the ways familiar information systems are being used by families and friends in everyday life, for example comparing current digital play equipment with play equipment of 20 years ago. 


Digital Technologies processes and production skills 

Collect, use and play with personal, family and classroom data (including numerical, categorical, text, image, audio and video data) and understand why it was collected and use digital systems to present the data 

  • locating and purposefully using visual or text data, for example searching through a digital photo library to select an image; 
  • exploring, imagining and comparing the usefulness of different data displays, for example jointly creating simple column graphs and picture graphs to represent different types of items; 
  • playing with and successfully using a simple database to retrieve information, for example finding out birthdates to celebrate birthdays; 
  • exploring and creating graphs to represent classroom data, for example collecting data on the country of birth of each student and presenting the results as a picture graph; 
  • using digital systems to collect data for a purpose, for example using a mobile device to record a musical performance; 
  • using digital systems to organise data to improve meaning, for example using word processing software to create a list of tasks and visualisation software to create a mind map (diagram) showing relationships between objects; and 
  • collecting data and sorting it into categories, for example collecting data about favourite toys and sorting them into manual or electronic and static or moving parts. 

Identify, explore, and use digital systems (hardware and software components) for personal and classroom needs 

  • playing with and using different digital systems for transferring and capturing data, for example using a tablet to take a photo of a grandparent and recording an interview with them about life in the past; 
  • exploring and using digital systems for downloading information, for example knowing how to download photographs from a website and inserting them into a word-processed document for a specific purpose; 
  • exploring and identifying hardware and software components of digital systems when creating ideas and information, for example experimenting with different ways of providing instructions to games software using a mouse, touch pad, touch screen, keyboard or stylus, and using different software to manipulate text, numbers, sound and images; 
  • recognising and using hardware and software components of digital systems and experimenting with their functions, for example playing with interactive toys and robotic devices to determine which ones can work with other devices; 
  • recognising that a digital system follows instructions or commands, for example instructing robotic toys to perform a function; and 
  • constructing a model of a real or imaginary digital device. 

Follow, describe, represent and play with a sequence of steps and decisions needed to solve simple problems 

  • experimenting and playing with very simple, step-by-step procedures to explore programmable devices, for example investigating different loads that robotic devices can tow and examining the relationship between load and speed;
  • working with others to sequence events and instructions, for example scanning personal photographs and collating them into a digital photo album to order significant personal events or milestones; and
  • collaboratively writing and entering a simple set of instructions, for example using simple visual programming to direct an actual or virtual robot to move in particular directions. 

Work with others to organise and create ideas and information in the form of text, images and audio using information systems, and share these with known people in safe online environments 

  • using different types of data such as text, images and sound to create information for sharing, for example creating a class profile that includes a photo of each student, an audio recording of them singing their favourite song and a written message to a friend; 
  • planning the steps and creating text, drawings and sound files to share online, for example collaboratively deciding on the focus for a fable or fairytale, finding relevant images or sound, selecting colours and fonts and using digital systems to write a story that will be shared on the intranet; 
  • making ethical decisions when using images for public viewing, for example asking the question ‘What is fair and just?’ to decide whether to publish a photo of an event or activity; and 
  • participating in online environments that are safe, for example intranets, bookmarked websites approved by teachers and parents, closed chat rooms, school email and supervised use of computers as phones.

Design and Technologies processes and production skills 

Explore and investigate needs or opportunities for designing, and the resources needed to produce designed solutions. 

  • identifying and gathering materials, components, tools and equipment to generate personal design ideas and discussing possible designed solutions based on experience and limited research, for example asking adults for advice; 
  • considering why the development of sustainable designed solutions is desirable; 
  • identifying one common testing method, and recording results, for example taste-testing comparisons of a food product made by the class and recording results in a digital form; and
  • comparing potential materials for their sustainability when making a designed solution. 

Visualise, generate, develop, evaluate and communicate design ideas through a range of media including digital technologies 

  • comparing and contrasting features of existing products to provide new ideas, for example when exploring toys with several movable parts with the view to designing and making a simple puppet with one moving part;
  • communicating design ideas using modelling and manually and digitally produced two-dimensional drawings showing different views (top view and side view) and labels to provide details, for example modelling of packaging for a product, or a new environment such as a cubby house or animal shelter; 
  • recording a judgment about design ideas with teacher guidance, for example expressing own likes and dislikes about a design idea.

Use design ideas, materials, components, tools and equipment to play with, plan, safely produce and evaluate designed solutions based on personal criteria for technologies contexts.

  • referring to their identified criteria, design plans and drawings when producing and evaluating designed solutions to check that planned features have been included;
  • using lists or storyboarding when planning and making, for example when planning a digital animation or an electronic planting calendar; 
  • using everyday materials in new ways, for example when using recycled materials to design, produce and model a constructed environment;
  • learning and practising a range of technical skills, for example joining techniques when making products and systems; and
  • reflecting on the processes and challenges of designing and producing a solution and sharing these reflections using digital technologies, for example when growing a food product, designing a structure to take a load or producing a nutritious snack. 


Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard 

By the end of Year 2, students should have experimented with different ways of representing patterns in data. They describe how familiar information systems are used to meet personal, classroom and family needs. Students suggest and use a sequence of steps to decide how to solve simple problems. They safely use familiar digital systems when experimenting with alternative ways of displaying familiar data to convey meaning, and when organising and creating ideas and information, and sharing these in restricted online environments



Level 3 Activity elaboration

In completing this or other design challenges, you will need to demonstrate the design process, taking a given problem through each of the stages of the process.

The design stage should show your identification and clarification of the problem, specifying any assumptions you have made with regards to the problem, and identifying what will determine a successful solutions (ensuring that these aspects can be tested).

The next step of the design stage is to research existing solutions to the problem, the different materials, tools, and systems related to the problem, to ideate as many different solutions as you can to solve the problem, create prototypes to compare possible solutions on a small scale, draw design plans and processes, and detail the reasoning behind your choice of which solution you will develop.

The development stage should detail your construction of a solution, the problems you encounter, and your solutions to these problems.

The testing and evaluation phase should determine how well your solution solves the problem you identified, with each factor measured in some way and based on this testing, an evaluation made to determine if the solution developed is the best possible or if other solutions should be explored from what has been learnt.

If necessary, the design cycle should be continued until the best possible solution has been derived (within constraints such as available time and resources).

This process should be fully documented (up to 400 words and 3 minutes of video) showing how you have demonstrated the design process. This process is much more important than the actual solution that is derived. 


You will be assessed on your interpretation of this design process (how well you implement what has been described to derive an effective solution); innovation in your research, planning and development of the design challenge; and articulation and presentation of your process and solution. 


Level 4 Activity elaboration 

As seen in the above example, a design challenge can address a wide range of the Knowledge and Understanding; and Processes and Production Skills (including Processes and Production Skills for Design and Technology) to be developed from Foundation to Year 2. While not all possible aspects must be addressed each year, sufficient aspects should be completed to ensure that all aspects are covered in the year grouping with some overlap to enable students multiple opportunities. In general, Processes and Production Skills will be addressed each year with Knowledge and Understanding varying depending upon the chosen context.
 
For a Foundation to Year 2 unit outline, you should detail 5 hours of learning activities  over 18 weeks including at least one design challenge such as that described for the Rube Goldburg design challenge. Other activities can be included that usually complement the main design challenge, such as learning to use a video camera, testing trigger events, etc. but do not constitute design challenges in themselves or only part of a challenge e.g. just a testing and evaluation of a particular solution.

The unit outline you develop should meet the requirements of the Australian Curriculum: Technologies and address one or more computational thinking concepts: Decomposition, Pattern Recognition, Pattern Generalisation and Abstraction, and/or Algorithm Design.

You may include design challenges you explored for Level 3 tasks but you only need to describe how they would be taught.

Your unit should indicate 1. the learning activities students will undertake and the time to be spent on them (innovation), 2. the Knowledge and Understanding and Processes and Production Skills that the unit will develop in students (interpretation), and 3. how these will be assessed (analysis). 




Subpages (1): DT3 F-2 Activities
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