D&T3 F-2






D&T3 F-2
















Foundation to Year 2


Design and Technology studies from Foundation to Year 2 builds on concepts, skills and processes that students have developed in pre-school activities and at home, while retaining a strong focus on play. 

By the end of Year 2 students must have had the opportunity to design, produce and evaluate designed solutions in at least the following technologies contexts: Materials and technologies specialisations; Food and fibre production (including Food technologies); and Engineering principles and systems. Schools will generally allocate 10 hours of Design and Technology studies per year.

One approach would be to have a design challenge each year, of 10 hours duration, covering one context per year.

In each design challenge, students should have opportunities to experience designing, producing and evaluating services and environments as well as products. 

Often a design challenge, particularly in younger years, will involve several teacher directed activities to scaffold student independent project based learning. For example, learning how to use scissors or sew with a needle might be taught through introductory activities before student use these skills in a design challenge. 


From Foundation to Year 2, students should complete design challenges in each of the three contexts of 

  • Materials and Technologies Specialisations;
  • Food and Fibre Production; and
  • Engineering Principles and Systems.

With an expected time allocation of 10 hours per year, it would be realistic to complete one or two design challenges each year and over the course of three years, address each of the contexts at least once.


Design Challenge Example

A design challenge in the context of Food and Fibre Production could involve:

Waterproof Clothing

Designing, creating and testing an innovative item of clothing that will keep someone completely dry in any weather;

This could address:

Students will develop the Design and Technologies knowledge and understanding to:

Understand how people, including designers and technologists, design and produce a familiar product to meet a personal need by exploring how local existing technologies are designed by people for a purpose and meet social needs, for example the range of cloths and technologies (such as umbrellas)  available to keep people dry;

Investigate and play with technologies, materials and systems used to identify properties and create designed solutions for personal needs by investigating local technological designed solutions to meet individua needs, for example, fabrics used for waterproofing and the sustainable use of materials.

Investigate and play with technologies, materials and systems used to identify properties and create designed solutions for personal needs by exploring various materials, components, tools and equipment to discover their potential uses when making products, for example when designing and making clothing to keep someone dry.

Investigate sustainable systems of care for clothing for an identified purpose, identifying products that can be designed and produced from plants and animals, for example paper, cardboards, fabrics, plastics and yarns; 

Students will develop Design and Technologies processes and production skills by:

Exploring and investigating needs or opportunities for designing, and the resources needed to produce designed solutions. 

      • identifying and gathering materials, components, tools and equipment to generate personal design ideas and discussing possible designed solutions based on experience and limited research, for example asking adults for advice about why different material keep water out; 
      • considering why the development of sustainable designed solutions is desirable, e.g. the dangers of plastics for the environment; 
      • identifying one common testing method, and recording results, for example testing the permeability of different material to water made by the class and recording results in a digital form; and
      • comparing potential materials for their sustainability when making a designed solution by wearing and playing in their solutions under a water sprinkler. 

Visualise, generate, develop, evaluate and communicate design ideas through a range of media including digital technologies 

      • comparing and contrasting features of existing products to provide new ideas, for example how umbrellas work, why raincoats are different to other cloths, why Wellingtons keep water out, etc.;
      • communicating design ideas by sketching their design ideas manually or digitally, showing different views (top view and side view) and labels to provide details; 
      • recording a judgment about design ideas with teacher guidance, for example expressing own likes and dislikes about their design ideas.

Use design ideas, materials, components, tools and equipment to play with, plan, safely produce and evaluate designed solutions based on personal criteria for technologies contexts.

      • referring to the identified criteria, e.g. be an item of clothing, not fall apart, keep out rain, students should draw designs, refer to these when producing their solution, and again when evaluating their solutions to check that planned features have been included and criteria met;
      • use lists when planning and making, e.g. a list of material they will need, steps for making and testing the product; 
      • use everyday materials in new ways, for example using recycled materials such as plastic bags to create their solution;
      • learn and practising a range of technical skills, for example joining techniques such as sewing plastic bags together; and
      • reflecting on the processes and challenges of designing and producing a solution and sharing these reflections using digital technologies, for example, taking photos of their design process and when testing their design. 

Note that while knowledge and understanding will generally not address all aspects, completing design challenges will usually involve all aspects of the Design and Technologies processes and production skills.

In this activity students would go through the design process by completing a design challenge that would involve students approaching the problem of staying dry in any weather by:

  1. Designing a solution by understanding what is required in their design brief, researching existing solutions and who designs these, creatively ideating as many possible new solutions as they can, researching and exploring the properties of different materials and their waterproofing potential, and exploring different ways that cloths are made by joining materials together;

  2. Developing a solution by following their plan, learning the processes involved in working through a series of steps, using various tools such as scissors, sewing needles, tape, glue, staplers, etc; and

  3. Evaluating their solution by testing to see if it is durable (i.e. does not fall apart when worn), keeps the wearer dry, and looks good. Finally they should present their solutions and speak to how it meets their design brief and how they achieved this by working through the design process.


The following details those aspects of the Australian Curriculum addressed by the activity:

Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions and Elaborations 

Design and Technologies knowledge and understanding 

Understand how people, including designers and technologists, design and produce familiar products; services; and environments to meet personal and local community needs.

  • exploring how local existing technologies are designed by people for a purpose and meet social needs, for example the range of shelters provided for the public in a local community; graphical displays for school and community events with an enterprising focus; communicating with others using web cams; 
  • asking questions about natural and managed environments when selecting materials and designing and making products, for example harvesting produce from the school garden and using recycled clothing;
  • making design decisions based on personal and family needs, for example downloading and comparing recipes to suit available cooking facilities such as in the bush compared to in a kitchen; 
  • critiquing products, services and environments for their sustainability, for example a sustainable system for organically or hydroponically growing a vegetable crop from seed or seedling to harvest.

Investigate and play with technologies, materials and systems used to identify properties and create designed solutions for personal and local community needs. 

  • investigating local technological designed solutions to meet individual, family and community needs, for example fabrics used for sports clothing, waterproofing play spaces or toys, sustainable use of materials, reducing risk from fires;
  • developing new meanings for objects and action during play, for example exploring how household packaging and toys can be used to represent other objects during imaginary play and to test designed solutions;
  • exploring systems used in the classroom or community for dealing with problems and needs, for example storage systems for equipment, traffic system flow for routes to school; 
  • investigating facilities in local environments such as bike tracks and sporting fields and infrastructure that provides accessibility for different groups or least environmental impact; and 
  • exploring materials, components, tools and equipment to discover their potential uses when making products or modelling services and environments, for example when designing and making clothes and shelter. 

Investigate sustainable systems of care for plants and animals that are grown, raised and processed for food, clothing and shelter for an identified purpose. 

  • investigating systems of care for supporting the needs of plants and animals for growth and enterprise, and how humans manage these processes on farms or in glasshouses, for example when designing a system for growing a food plant from seed or seedling and using the food grown as an ingredient in recipes;
  • identifying products that can be designed and produced from plants and animals, for example food products, paper, fabrics and yarns, and fertilisers; 
  • identifying and categorising a wide range of foods into food groups;
  • examining how people from different cultures design and create different cuisines based on the plants and animals in their region; and 
  • considering the suitability of a range of tools when cultivating gardens, mulching and building garden structures, preparing and cooking specific recipes.

Explore how mechanical, electrical and electronic technologies use pushes and pulls to create movement in systems and products 

  • exploring how the principles of push and pull are used in the design of toys;
  • ¥identifying and experimenting with components such as wheels, balls, slides, springs, batteries and available local materials to solve problems requiring movement;
  • exploring a system such as a marionette or Indonesian Wayang Kulit shadow puppet to see that by combining materials with forces movement can be created;
  • combining materials and using forces in design, for example designing the door on a cage or a simple conveyor belt to move materials short distances; and
  • selecting materials to demonstrate an understanding of material properties appropriate for particular designed solutions, for example materials that enable sliding or that float.

Design and Technologies processes and production skills 

Explore and investigate needs or opportunities for designing, and the resources needed to produce designed solutions. 

  • identifying and gathering materials, components, tools and equipment to generate personal design ideas and discussing possible designed solutions based on experience and limited research, for example asking adults for advice; 
  • considering why the development of sustainable designed solutions is desirable; 
  • identifying one common testing method, and recording results, for example taste-testing comparisons of a food product made by the class and recording results in a digital form; and
  • comparing potential materials for their sustainability when making a designed solution. 

Visualise, generate, develop, evaluate and communicate design ideas through a range of media including digital technologies 

  • comparing and contrasting features of existing products to provide new ideas, for example when exploring toys with several movable parts with the view to designing and making a simple puppet with one moving part;
  • communicating design ideas using modelling and manually and digitally produced two-dimensional drawings showing different views (top view and side view) and labels to provide details, for example modelling of packaging for a product, or a new environment such as a cubby house or animal shelter; 
  • recording a judgment about design ideas with teacher guidance, for example expressing own likes and dislikes about a design idea.

Use design ideas, materials, components, tools and equipment to play with, plan, safely produce and evaluate designed solutions based on personal criteria for technologies contexts.

  • referring to their identified criteria, design plans and drawings when producing and evaluating designed solutions to check that planned features have been included;
  • using lists or storyboarding when planning and making, for example when planning a digital animation or an electronic planting calendar; 
  • using everyday materials in new ways, for example when using recycled materials to design, produce and model a constructed environment;
  • learning and practising a range of technical skills, for example joining techniques when making products and systems; and
  • reflecting on the processes and challenges of designing and producing a solution and sharing these reflections using digital technologies, for example when growing a food product, designing a structure to take a load or producing a nutritious snack. 

Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard 

By the end of Year 2, students describe the purpose of familiar products, services and environments; they identify who designs and produces them, and how they meet the needs. of users and affect others. They identify the properties of some materials, systems and technologies for a range of technologies contexts. 

Students identify needs or opportunities and suggest resources needed for their designed solutions. Using a range of media and methods including digital technologies, they develop, communicate and evaluate design ideas and choose the best ideas. With guidance they safely use materials, components, tools and equipment and follow steps to produce products, services or environments. They use identified criteria to evaluate these designed solutions predominantly in relation to personal needs.



Level 3 Activity elaboration

In completing this or other design chalenges, you will need to demonstrate the design process, taking a given problem through each of the stages of the process.

The design stage should show your identification and clarification of the problem, specifying any assumptions you have made with regards to the problem, and identifying what will determine a successful solutions (ensuring that these aspects can be tested).

The next step of the design stage is to research existing solutions to the problem, the different materials, tools, and systems related to the problem, to ideate as many different solutions as you can to solve the problem, create prototypes to compare possible solutions on a small scale, draw design plans and processes, and detail the reasoning behind your choice of which solution you will develop.

The development stage should detail your construction of a solution, the problems you encounter, and your solutions to these problems.

The testing and evaluation phase should determine how well your solution solves the problem you identified, with each factor measured in some way and based on this testing, an evaluation made to determine if the solution developed is the best possible or if other solutions should be explored from what has been learnt.

If necessary, the design cycle should be continued until the best possible solution has been derived (within constraints such as available time and resources).

This process should be fully documented (up to 400 words and 3 minutes of video) showing how you have demonstrated the design process. This process is much more important than the actual solution that is derived. 


You will be assessed on your interpretation of this design process (how well you implement what has been described to derive an effective solution); innovation in your research, planning and development of the design challenge; and articulation and presentation of your process and solution. 


Level 4 Activity elaboration 

As seen in the above example, a design challenge can address a wide range of the Knowledge and Understanding; and Processes and Production Skills to be developed from Foundation to Year 2. While not all possible aspects must be addressed each year, sufficient aspects should be completed to ensure that all aspects are covered in the year grouping with some overlap to enable students multiple opportunities. In general, Processes and Production Skills will be addressed each year with Knowledge and Understanding varying depending upon the chosen context.
 
For a Foundation to Year 2 unit outline, you should detail 5 hours of learning activities  over 18 weeks including at least one design challenge such as that described for the Waterproof Clothing design challenge. Other activities can be included that usually complement the main design challenge, such as learning to sew, testing materials, etc. but do not constitute design challenges in themselves or only part of a challenge e.g. just a testing and evaluation of a particular solution.

The unit outline you develop should meet the requirements of the Australian Curriculum: Technologies and address one of the contexts: Materials and Technologies, Food and Fibre Production/Food Technologies; or Engineering Principles and Systems. You may include design challenges you explored for Level 3 tasks but you only need to describe how they would be taught.

Your unit should indicate 1. the learning activities students will undertake and the time to be spent on them (innovation), 2. the Knowledge and Understanding and Processes and Production Skills that the unit will develop in students (interpretation), and 3. how these will be assessed (analysis). 







Subpages (1): D&T3 F-2 Activities
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