Week 7






Week 7    How to develop effective Technologies units of work


Video Presentation:    How to develop effective Technologies units of work




 

Please watch this by Wednesday of Week 7



Course Content:        How to develop effective Technologies units of work


Please have read and studied these examples by Wednesday of Week 6


Note that these examples and curriculum linkages refer to a previous draft of the Technologies Learning Area, there are significant differences with the current curriculum and in your assessment you will need to develop units of work that relate to the current curriculum. These example also do not fully model the elements you are required to demonstrate for your unit outlines, they are provided as explanations of approaches and not templates or examples for your unit outlines (otherwise you would not be able to do any of the topics exampled here for your own units).



Foundation to Year 2 Design and Technologies   (old draft) 


Design and Technology studies from Foundation to Year 2 builds on concepts, skills and processes that students have developed in pre-school activities and at home, while retaining a strong focus on play. 

By the end of Year 2 students must have had the opportunity to design, produce and evaluate designed solutions in at least the following technologies contexts: Materials and technologies specialisations; Food and fibre production (including Food technologies); and Engineering principles and systems. Schools will generally allocate 10 hours of Design and Technology studies per year.

One approach would be to have a design challenge each year, of 10 hours duration, covering one context per year.

In each design challenge, students should have opportunities to experience designing, producing and evaluating services and environments as well as products. 

Often a design challenge, particularly in younger years, will involve several teacher directed activities to scaffold student independent project based learning. For example, learning how to use scissors or sew with a needle might be taught through introductory activities before student use these skills in a design challenge. 


From Foundation to Year 2, students should complete design challenges in each of the three contexts of 

  • Materials and Technologies Specialisations;
  • Food and Fibre Production; and
  • Engineering Principles and Systems.

With an expected time allocation of 10 hours per year, it would be realistic to complete one or two design challenges each year and over the course of three years, address each of the contexts at least once.

Design Challenge Example

A design challenge in the context of Food and Fibre Production could involve:

Waterproof Clothing

Designing, creating and testing an innovative item of clothing that will keep someone completely dry in any weather;

This could address:

Students will develop the Design and Technologies knowledge and understanding to:

Understand how people, including designers and technologists, design and produce a familiar product to meet a personal need by exploring how local existing technologies are designed by people for a purpose and meet social needs, for example the range of cloths and technologies (such as umbrellas)  available to keep people dry;

Investigate and play with technologies, materials and systems used to identify properties and create designed solutions for personal needs by investigating local technological designed solutions to meet individua needs, for example, fabrics used for waterproofing and the sustainable use of materials.

Investigate and play with technologies, materials and systems used to identify properties and create designed solutions for personal needs by exploring various materials, components, tools and equipment to discover their potential uses when making products, for example when designing and making clothing to keep someone dry.

Investigate sustainable systems of care for clothing for an identified purpose, identifying products that can be designed and produced from plants and animals, for example paper, cardboards, fabrics, plastics and yarns; 

Students will develop Design and Technologies processes and production skills by:

Exploring and investigating needs or opportunities for designing, and the resources needed to produce designed solutions. 

  • identifying and gathering materials, components, tools and equipment to generate personal design ideas and discussing possible designed solutions based on experience and limited research, for example asking adults for advice about why different material keep water out; 
  • considering why the development of sustainable designed solutions is desirable, e.g. the dangers of plastics for the environment; 
  • identifying one common testing method, and recording results, for example testing the permeability of different material to water made by the class and recording results in a digital form; and
  • comparing potential materials for their sustainability when making a designed solution by wearing and playing in their solutions under a water sprinkler. 

Visualise, generate, develop, evaluate and communicate design ideas through a range of media including digital technologies 

  • comparing and contrasting features of existing products to provide new ideas, for example how umbrellas work, why raincoats are different to other cloths, why Wellingtons keep water out, etc.;
  • communicating design ideas by sketching their design ideas manually or digitally, showing different views (top view and side view) and labels to provide details; 
  • recording a judgment about design ideas with teacher guidance, for example expressing own likes and dislikes about their design ideas.

Use design ideas, materials, components, tools and equipment to play with, plan, safely produce and evaluate designed solutions based on personal criteria for technologies contexts.

  • referring to the identified criteria, e.g. be an item of clothing, not fall apart, keep out rain, students should draw designs, refer to these when producing their solution, and again when evaluating their solutions to check that planned features have been included and criteria met;
  • use lists when planning and making, e.g. a list of material they will need, steps for making and testing the product; 
  • use everyday materials in new ways, for example using recycled materials such as plastic bags to create their solution;
  • learn and practising a range of technical skills, for example joining techniques such as sewing plastic bags together; and
  • reflecting on the processes and challenges of designing and producing a solution and sharing these reflections using digital technologies, for example, taking photos of their design process and when testing their design. 

Note that while knowledge and understanding will generally not address all aspects, completing design challenges will usually involve all aspects of the Design and Technologies processes and production skills.

In this activity students would go through the design process by completing a design challenge that would involve students approaching the problem of staying dry in any weather by:

  1. Designing a solution by understanding what is required in their design brief, researching existing solutions and who designs these, creatively ideating as many possible new solutions as they can, researching and exploring the properties of different materials and their waterproofing potential, and exploring different ways that cloths are made by joining materials together;

  2. Developing a solution by following their plan, learning the processes involved in working through a series of steps, using various tools such as scissors, sewing needles, tape, glue, staplers, etc; and

  3. Evaluating their solution by testing to see if it is durable (i.e. does not fall apart when worn), keeps the wearer dry, and looks good. Finally they should present their solutions and speak to how it meets their design brief and how they achieved this by working through the design process.

The following details those aspects of the Australian Curriculum addressed by the activity:

Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions and Elaborations 

Design and Technologies knowledge and understanding 

Understand how people, including designers and technologists, design and produce familiar products; services; and environments to meet personal and local community needs.

  • exploring how local existing technologies are designed by people for a purpose and meet social needs, for example the range of shelters provided for the public in a local community; graphical displays for school and community events with an enterprising focus; communicating with others using web cams; 
  • asking questions about natural and managed environments when selecting materials and designing and making products, for example harvesting produce from the school garden and using recycled clothing;
  • making design decisions based on personal and family needs, for example downloading and comparing recipes to suit available cooking facilities such as in the bush compared to in a kitchen; 
  • critiquing products, services and environments for their sustainability, for example a sustainable system for organically or hydroponically growing a vegetable crop from seed or seedling to harvest.

Investigate and play with technologies, materials and systems used to identify properties and create designed solutions for personal and local community needs. 

  • investigating local technological designed solutions to meet individual, family and community needs, for example fabrics used for sports clothing, waterproofing play spaces or toys, sustainable use of materials, reducing risk from fires;
  • developing new meanings for objects and action during play, for example exploring how household packaging and toys can be used to represent other objects during imaginary play and to test designed solutions;
  • exploring systems used in the classroom or community for dealing with problems and needs, for example storage systems for equipment, traffic system flow for routes to school; 
  • investigating facilities in local environments such as bike tracks and sporting fields and infrastructure that provides accessibility for different groups or least environmental impact; and 
  • exploring materials, components, tools and equipment to discover their potential uses when making products or modelling services and environments, for example when designing and making clothes and shelter. 

Investigate sustainable systems of care for plants and animals that are grown, raised and processed for food, clothing and shelter for an identified purpose. 

  • investigating systems of care for supporting the needs of plants and animals for growth and enterprise, and how humans manage these processes on farms or in glasshouses, for example when designing a system for growing a food plant from seed or seedling and using the food grown as an ingredient in recipes;
  • identifying products that can be designed and produced from plants and animals, for example food products, paper, fabrics and yarns, and fertilisers; 
  • identifying and categorising a wide range of foods into food groups;
  • examining how people from different cultures design and create different cuisines based on the plants and animals in their region; and 
  • considering the suitability of a range of tools when cultivating gardens, mulching and building garden structures, preparing and cooking specific recipes.

Explore how mechanical, electrical and electronic technologies use pushes and pulls to create movement in systems and products 

  • exploring how the principles of push and pull are used in the design of toys;
  • ¥identifying and experimenting with components such as wheels, balls, slides, springs, batteries and available local materials to solve problems requiring movement;
  • exploring a system such as a marionette or Indonesian Wayang Kulit shadow puppet to see that by combining materials with forces movement can be created;
  • combining materials and using forces in design, for example designing the door on a cage or a simple conveyor belt to move materials short distances; and
  • selecting materials to demonstrate an understanding of material properties appropriate for particular designed solutions, for example materials that enable sliding or that float.

Design and Technologies processes and production skills 

Explore and investigate needs or opportunities for designing, and the resources needed to produce designed solutions. 

  • identifying and gathering materials, components, tools and equipment to generate personal design ideas and discussing possible designed solutions based on experience and limited research, for example asking adults for advice; 
  • considering why the development of sustainable designed solutions is desirable; 
  • identifying one common testing method, and recording results, for example taste-testing comparisons of a food product made by the class and recording results in a digital form; and
  • comparing potential materials for their sustainability when making a designed solution. 

Visualise, generate, develop, evaluate and communicate design ideas through a range of media including digital technologies 

  • comparing and contrasting features of existing products to provide new ideas, for example when exploring toys with several movable parts with the view to designing and making a simple puppet with one moving part;
  • communicating design ideas using modelling and manually and digitally produced two-dimensional drawings showing different views (top view and side view) and labels to provide details, for example modelling of packaging for a product, or a new environment such as a cubby house or animal shelter; 
  • recording a judgment about design ideas with teacher guidance, for example expressing own likes and dislikes about a design idea.

Use design ideas, materials, components, tools and equipment to play with, plan, safely produce and evaluate designed solutions based on personal criteria for technologies contexts.

  • referring to their identified criteria, design plans and drawings when producing and evaluating designed solutions to check that planned features have been included;
  • using lists or storyboarding when planning and making, for example when planning a digital animation or an electronic planting calendar; 
  • using everyday materials in new ways, for example when using recycled materials to design, produce and model a constructed environment;
  • learning and practising a range of technical skills, for example joining techniques when making products and systems; and
  • reflecting on the processes and challenges of designing and producing a solution and sharing these reflections using digital technologies, for example when growing a food product, designing a structure to take a load or producing a nutritious snack. 

Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard 

By the end of Year 2, students describe the purpose of familiar products, services and environments; they identify who designs and produces them, and how they meet the needs. of users and affect others. They identify the properties of some materials, systems and technologies for a range of technologies contexts. 

Students identify needs or opportunities and suggest resources needed for their designed solutions. Using a range of media and methods including digital technologies, they develop, communicate and evaluate design ideas and choose the best ideas. With guidance they safely use materials, components, tools and equipment and follow steps to produce products, services or environments. They use identified criteria to evaluate these designed solutions predominantly in relation to personal needs.


Elaboration


In completing this or other design challenges, you will need to demonstrate the design process, taking a given problem through each of the stages of the process.

The design stage should show your identification and clarification of the problem, specifying any assumptions you have made with regards to the problem, and identifying what will determine a successful solutions (ensuring that these aspects can be tested).

The next step of the design stage is to research existing solutions to the problem, the different materials, tools, and systems related to the problem, to ideate as many different solutions as you can to solve the problem, create prototypes to compare possible solutions on a small scale, draw design plans and processes, and detail the reasoning behind your choice of which solution you will develop.

The development stage should detail your construction of a solution, the problems you encounter, and your solutions to these problems.

The testing and evaluation phase should determine how well your solution solves the problem you identified, with each factor measured in some way and based on this testing, an evaluation made to determine if the solution developed is the best possible or if other solutions should be explored from what has been learnt.

If necessary, the design cycle should be continued until the best possible solution has been derived (within constraints such as available time and resources).

As seen in the above example, a design challenge can address a wide range of the Knowledge and Understanding; and Processes and Production Skills to be developed from Foundation to Year 2. While not all possible aspects must be addressed each year, sufficient aspects should be completed to ensure that all aspects are covered in the year grouping with some overlap to enable students multiple opportunities. In general, Processes and Production Skills will be addressed each year with Knowledge and Understanding varying depending upon the chosen context.
 
For a Foundation to Year 2 unit outline, you should detail 5 hours of learning activities  over 18 weeks including at least one design challenge such as that described for the Waterproof Clothing design challenge. Other activities can be included that usually complement the main design challenge, such as learning to sew, testing materials, etc. but do not constitute design challenges in themselves or only part of a challenge e.g. just a testing and evaluation of a particular solution.

The unit outline you develop should meet the requirements of the Australian Curriculum: Technologies and address one of the contexts: Materials and Technologies, Food and Fibre Production/Food Technologies; or Engineering Principles and Systems. You may include design challenges you explored for Level 3 tasks but you only need to describe how they would be taught.

Your unit should indicate 1. the learning activities students will undertake and the time to be spent on them (innovation), 2. the Knowledge and Understanding and Processes and Production Skills that the unit will develop in students (interpretation), and 3. how these will be assessed (analysis). 





Foundation to Year 2 Digital Technologies  (old draft)


Digital Technologies studies from Foundation to Year 2 builds on student understanding of computers and digital technologies they have developed in pre-school activities and at home, while retaining a strong focus on play. 

By the end of Year 2 students must have had the opportunity to design, produce and evaluate digital technology solutions to a range of problems that include the following concepts:

  • Patterns: exploring different ways of representing patterns in data; 
  • Information Systems: describing how familiar information systems are used to meet personal, classroom and family needs; 
  • Algorithms: suggesting and using a sequence of steps to decide how to solve simple problems; and
  • Online: safely use familiar digital systems when experimenting with alternative ways of displaying familiar data to convey meaning when organising and creating ideas and information, and sharing these in restricted online environments. 

Schools will generally allocate 10 hours of Digital Technologies studies per year.

One approach would be to have a design challenge each year, of 10 hours duration, covering one or two cocnepts per year.

In each design challenge, students should have opportunities to experience designing, producing and evaluating services and environments as well as products. 

Often a design challenge, particularly in younger years, will involve several teacher directed activities to scaffold student independent project based learning. For example, learning how to use a software tool or technology such as a digital camera through introductory activities before student use these skills in a design challenge. 

From Foundation to Year 2, students should complete design challenges in each of the four contexts of 

  • Patterns; (Decomposition, Pattern Recognition, Pattern Generalisation and Abstraction)
  • Information Systems; (Decomposition, Pattern Recognition, Pattern Generalisation and Abstraction)
  • Algorithms; and (Algorithm Design)
  • Online.

With an expected time allocation of 10 hours per year, it would be realistic to complete one or two design challenges each year and over the course of three years, address each of the concepts at least once.

In F–2, students begin thinking computationally by using the power of digital systems in their play and developing computational thinking skills through projects and design challenges.


Design Challenge Example

A design challenge in the concept of Patterns and Algorithms could involve:

Rube Goldburg Machine

Designing, creating and testing an innovative Rube Goldburg sequence of at least 20 steps and video a successful run (Max 3 minutes).

Challenge specifications that can be tested could include: to have the most steps in a sequence, complete a run in the quickest time, complete the sequence in the longest time, to use the most different triggers, etc.


This could address:

Digital Technologies knowledge and understanding 

Recognise and play with patterns in data and represent data as pictures, symbols and diagrams 

  • sorting objects and events based on easily identified characteristics and using digital systems to represent patterns in data, in this challenge, using a range of objects to trigger the next object in a sequence, and representing this process as data and graphs of the progression;
  • making generalisations about these data sets, recording results of Rube Goldburg machine runs in an on-screen table and talking about the results, comparing different machines and then finding patterns and reasons why some runs go more quickly or slowly; and
  • experimenting with different ways of representing patterns, for example using diagrams to show machine designs and graphs to display data about runs.

Describe how people use different information systems safely to meet personal and family communication and recreation needs 

  • sharing and describing ways that common information systems can be used to meet communication needs, producing posters, presentations and video of machine runs; and
  • sharing machine designs and runs with families and friends with video clips and posters that can be taken home or displayed safely online. 

Digital Technologies processes and production skills 

Collect, use and play with classroom data (recording run times as numerical data, still images and diagrams of machines, and video data of runs) and understand why it was collected and use digital systems to present the data 

  • locating and purposefully using visual and text data, naming photos correctly with their name and date, then searching through a class digital photo library to select an image of their machine; 
  • exploring, imagining and comparing the usefulness of different data displays, jointly creating simple column graphs and picture graphs to represent the speeds of different runs; 
  • playing with and successfully using a simple database of photographs to retrieve information; 
  • exploring and creating graphs to represent run data; 
  • using digital cameras and video cameras to collect data for a purpose; 
  • using digital systems to organise data to improve meaning, using a spreadsheet to show differences in the speeds of different runs; and 
  • collecting data and sorting it into categories, for example collecting data (photos, video and times) about fast run challenges and slow run challenges and storing and retrieving this using a simple database: a spreadsheet. 

Identify, explore, and use digital systems (hardware and software components) for personal and classroom needs 

  • playing with and using digital cameras, video cameras, timers (e.g. stop watches or timers on computers) for transferring and capturing data about student machines and the testing of these machines; 
  • exploring and using digital systems for downloading information, researching different Rube Goldburg creations on the internet; 
  • recognising that a machine system follows instructions or commands, each triggering the next action; and 
  • constructing a model of a Rube Goldburg machine. 

Follow, describe, represent and play with a sequence of steps and decisions needed to solve simple problems 

  • experimenting and playing with very simple, step-by-step procedures to explore devices; and
  • working with others to sequence events and instructions and acheive working Rube Goldburg machines.

Work with others to organise and create ideas and information in the form of text (writing about their machines), images )diagramming their designs and taking photos of the construction process) and video (of working runs) using information systems to store this data in a spreadsheet, and share these with known people (such as parents) in safe online environments 

  • using different types of data such as text, images and video to create information for sharing; 
  • planning the steps and creating text, drawings and video files to share online; and
  • participating in online environments that are safe, using a restricted website approved by teachers and parents, closed to share video of machine runs.

Design and Technology processes and production skills

Students will often also have opportunities to develop Design and Technologies processes and production skills by:

Exploring and investigating needs or opportunities for designing, and the resources needed to produce designed solutions. 

  • identifying and gathering materials, components, tools and equipment to generate personal design ideas and discussing possible designed solutions based on experience and limited research;
  • identifying one common testing method, and recording results, timing runs and recording them with video; and
  • comparing potential materials for their suitability when making a designed solution. 

Visualise, generate, develop, evaluate and communicate design ideas through a range of media including digital technologies 

  • comparing and contrasting features of existing Rube Goldbrg machines to provide new ideas;
  • communicating design ideas by sketching their design ideas manually or digitally, showing different views (top view and side view) and labels to provide details; 
  • recording a judgment about design ideas with teacher guidance, for example expressing own likes and dislikes about their design ideas.

Use design ideas, materials, components, tools and equipment to play with, plan, safely produce and evaluate designed solutions based on personal criteria for technologies contexts.

  • referring to the identified criteria, e.g. complete runs quickly or slowly, use many different trigger events, etc.;
  • use lists when planning and making, e.g. a list of material they will need, steps for making and testing the machine; 
  • use everyday materials in new ways, for example using recycled materials;
  • learn and practising a range of technical skills, for example joining techniques, trigger techniques; and
  • reflecting on the processes and challenges of designing and producing a solution and sharing these reflections using digital technologies, for example, taking photos of their design process and when testing their design. 

Note that most design challenges in Design and Technology or Digital Technologies will usually involve all aspects of the Design and Technologies processes and production skills.

In this activity students would go through the design process by completing a design challenge that would involve students approaching the problem of designing, creating and testing an innovative Rube Goldburg sequence of at least 20 steps and videoing a successful run by:

  1. Designing a solution by understanding what is required in their design brief, researching existing solutions and who designs these, creatively ideating as many possible new solutions as they can, researching and exploring the properties of different trigger events and actions, and exploring different ways that information (actions) can be transmitted;

  2. Developing a solution by following their plan, learning the processes involved in working through a series of steps, using various tools such as scissors, tape, glue, staplers, etc; and

  3. Evaluating their solution by testing to see if it works well (i.e. does not trigger by accident, fail along the way, go the fastest, or the slowest), goes through at least 20 steps, and uses different trigger mechanisms creatively. Finally they should incorporate the data from their runs into a simple database e.g. a spreadsheet and speak to how their solution meets their design brief by drawing data from this database to show why it was a good solution to the problem, presenting this data in graphs and showcasing their runs in a video.





























































Foundation to Year 2 Content Descriptions and Elaborations 

Digital Technologies knowledge and understanding 

Recognise and play with patterns in data and represent data as pictures, symbols and diagrams 

  • sorting objects and events based on easily identified characteristics and using digital systems to represent patterns in data, for example sorting birthdates according to their seasons and presenting the patterns using seasonal symbols; 
  • making generalisations about data sets, for example recording results of an experiment in an on-screen table and talking about the results, for example comparing different ways of travelling to school using classroom data and then finding patterns; 
  • experimenting with different ways of representing patterns, for example using materials, sounds, movements or drawing; and 
  • learning about how data are represented by changing a colour digital photograph to black and white and noting the change in file size.

Describe how people use different information systems safely to meet personal and family communication and recreation needs 

  • sharing and describing ways that common information systems can be used to meet communication needs, for example computers can be used as phones, and email allows communication between families living in different regions; 
  • recognising and discussing the need for cybersafety when using online information systems, for example recognising that shared personal information can be used for undesirable purposes by some people and that using passwords is a means of protecting identity; 
  • noticing ergonomics when children are playing with, exploring and experimenting with information systems, for example when using touch screen devices in different settings, such as outdoors or when playing a game on the floor; 
  • discussing types of existing information systems that support individual needs, for example voice tablets for people who are visually impaired; and
  • sharing ideas about the ways familiar information systems are being used by families and friends in everyday life, for example comparing current digital play equipment with play equipment of 20 years ago. 


Digital Technologies processes and production skills 

Collect, use and play with personal, family and classroom data (including numerical, categorical, text, image, audio and video data) and understand why it was collected and use digital systems to present the data 

  • locating and purposefully using visual or text data, for example searching through a digital photo library to select an image; 
  • exploring, imagining and comparing the usefulness of different data displays, for example jointly creating simple column graphs and picture graphs to represent different types of items; 
  • playing with and successfully using a simple database to retrieve information, for example finding out birthdates to celebrate birthdays; 
  • exploring and creating graphs to represent classroom data, for example collecting data on the country of birth of each student and presenting the results as a picture graph; 
  • using digital systems to collect data for a purpose, for example using a mobile device to record a musical performance; 
  • using digital systems to organise data to improve meaning, for example using word processing software to create a list of tasks and visualisation software to create a mind map (diagram) showing relationships between objects; and 
  • collecting data and sorting it into categories, for example collecting data about favourite toys and sorting them into manual or electronic and static or moving parts. 

Identify, explore, and use digital systems (hardware and software components) for personal and classroom needs 

  • playing with and using different digital systems for transferring and capturing data, for example using a tablet to take a photo of a grandparent and recording an interview with them about life in the past; 
  • exploring and using digital systems for downloading information, for example knowing how to download photographs from a website and inserting them into a word-processed document for a specific purpose; 
  • exploring and identifying hardware and software components of digital systems when creating ideas and information, for example experimenting with different ways of providing instructions to games software using a mouse, touch pad, touch screen, keyboard or stylus, and using different software to manipulate text, numbers, sound and images; 
  • recognising and using hardware and software components of digital systems and experimenting with their functions, for example playing with interactive toys and robotic devices to determine which ones can work with other devices; 
  • recognising that a digital system follows instructions or commands, for example instructing robotic toys to perform a function; and 
  • constructing a model of a real or imaginary digital device. 

Follow, describe, represent and play with a sequence of steps and decisions needed to solve simple problems 

  • experimenting and playing with very simple, step-by-step procedures to explore programmable devices, for example investigating different loads that robotic devices can tow and examining the relationship between load and speed;
  • working with others to sequence events and instructions, for example scanning personal photographs and collating them into a digital photo album to order significant personal events or milestones; and
  • collaboratively writing and entering a simple set of instructions, for example using simple visual programming to direct an actual or virtual robot to move in particular directions. 

Work with others to organise and create ideas and information in the form of text, images and audio using information systems, and share these with known people in safe online environments 

  • using different types of data such as text, images and sound to create information for sharing, for example creating a class profile that includes a photo of each student, an audio recording of them singing their favourite song and a written message to a friend; 
  • planning the steps and creating text, drawings and sound files to share online, for example collaboratively deciding on the focus for a fable or fairytale, finding relevant images or sound, selecting colours and fonts and using digital systems to write a story that will be shared on the intranet; 
  • making ethical decisions when using images for public viewing, for example asking the question ‘What is fair and just?’ to decide whether to publish a photo of an event or activity; and 
  • participating in online environments that are safe, for example intranets, bookmarked websites approved by teachers and parents, closed chat rooms, school email and supervised use of computers as phones.

Design and Technologies processes and production skills 

Explore and investigate needs or opportunities for designing, and the resources needed to produce designed solutions. 

  • identifying and gathering materials, components, tools and equipment to generate personal design ideas and discussing possible designed solutions based on experience and limited research, for example asking adults for advice; 
  • considering why the development of sustainable designed solutions is desirable; 
  • identifying one common testing method, and recording results, for example taste-testing comparisons of a food product made by the class and recording results in a digital form; and
  • comparing potential materials for their sustainability when making a designed solution. 

Visualise, generate, develop, evaluate and communicate design ideas through a range of media including digital technologies 

  • comparing and contrasting features of existing products to provide new ideas, for example when exploring toys with several movable parts with the view to designing and making a simple puppet with one moving part;
  • communicating design ideas using modelling and manually and digitally produced two-dimensional drawings showing different views (top view and side view) and labels to provide details, for example modelling of packaging for a product, or a new environment such as a cubby house or animal shelter; 
  • recording a judgment about design ideas with teacher guidance, for example expressing own likes and dislikes about a design idea.

Use design ideas, materials, components, tools and equipment to play with, plan, safely produce and evaluate designed solutions based on personal criteria for technologies contexts.

  • referring to their identified criteria, design plans and drawings when producing and evaluating designed solutions to check that planned features have been included;
  • using lists or storyboarding when planning and making, for example when planning a digital animation or an electronic planting calendar; 
  • using everyday materials in new ways, for example when using recycled materials to design, produce and model a constructed environment;
  • learning and practising a range of technical skills, for example joining techniques when making products and systems; and
  • reflecting on the processes and challenges of designing and producing a solution and sharing these reflections using digital technologies, for example when growing a food product, designing a structure to take a load or producing a nutritious snack. 


Foundation to Year 2 Achievement Standard 

By the end of Year 2, students should have experimented with different ways of representing patterns in data. They describe how familiar information systems are used to meet personal, classroom and family needs. Students suggest and use a sequence of steps to decide how to solve simple problems. They safely use familiar digital systems when experimenting with alternative ways of displaying familiar data to convey meaning, and when organising and creating ideas and information, and sharing these in restricted online environments







Year 3 to Year 4 Design and Technologies (old draft)


Design and Technology studies from Year 3 to Year 4 builds on concepts, skills and processes developed in earlier years, and teachers will revisit and strengthen these as needed. 

By the end of Year 4 students must have had the opportunity to design, produce and evaluate designed solutions each of the three technologies contexts: Materials and technologies specialisations; Food and fibre production (including Food technologies); and Engineering principles and systems. 

In Years 3 and 4 the curriculum focuses on students developing a sense of self and ownership of their ideas and thinking in relation to their peers, communities and as a consumer. Students explore creative and innovative ideas and alternatives and establish their own design skills. Students learn to harness their creative ideas and imaginative approaches to achieve designed products, services and environments through planning and awareness of the properties and characteristics of materials and the use of tools and equipment. They learn to reflect on their actions to refine their working and develop their decision-making skills. 

Using manual and digital technologies students represent ideas, for example clarifying ideas by drawing freehand annotated diagrams; modelling objects as three-dimensional images from different views by visualising rotating images and using materials. Students recognise techniques for documenting design and production ideas such as basic drawing symbols and use simple flow diagrams. 

Students examine personal, social and environmental sustainability implications of existing products and processes to raise awareness of their place in the world. They compare their predicted implications with real-world case studies, and recognise that designs and technologies can affect people and their environments. They become aware of the role of designers and technologists and how they think about the way a product might change in the future. 

Students become aware of the appropriate ways to manage their time and focus. With teacher guidance, they identify and list criteria for success and the major steps needed to complete a design task. They demonstrate an understanding of the importance of planning when designing solutions, in particular when collaborating. 

Students identify safety issues and learn to follow simple safety rules when producing designed solutions. 


Schools will generally allocate 20 hours of Design and Technology studies per year.

One approach would be to have two design challenges each year, each of 10 hours duration, covering two context per year. This would permit coverage of all three contexts over years 3 and 4.

In each design challenge, students should have opportunities to experience designing, producing and evaluating services and environments as well as products. 

Often a design challenge, particularly in younger years, will involve several teacher directed activities to scaffold student independent project based learning. For example, learning how to use scissors or sew with a needle might be taught through introductory activities before student use these skills in a design challenge. 


From Years 3 to Year 4, students should complete design challenges in each of the three contexts of 

  • Materials and Technologies Specialisations;
  • Food and Fibre Production; and
  • Engineering Principles and Systems.

With an expected time allocation of 20 hours per year, it would be realistic to complete two design challenges each year and over the course of two years, address each of the contexts at least once.


Design Challenge Example

A design challenge in the context of Materials and Technologies Specialisations could involve:

PaddlePop Bridge

Design, create and test an innovative paddle-pop stick model (physical) bridge spanning 2m and sustaining a load;

This could address:

Students developing a sense of self and ownership of their ideas and thinking in relation to their peers, communities and as a consumer. Students should explore creative and innovative ideas and alternatives and establish their own design skills. Students learn to harness their creative ideas and imaginative approaches to achieve designed products, services and environments through planning and awareness of the properties and characteristics of materials and the use of tools and equipment. They learn to reflect on their actions to refine their working and develop their decision-making skills. 

Using manual and digital technologies students represent their ideas, for example clarifying ideas by drawing freehand annotated diagrams; modelling objects as three-dimensional images from different views by visualising rotating images and using materials. Students recognise techniques for documenting design and production ideas such as basic drawing symbols and use simple flow diagrams of their construction and testing processes. 

Students examine personal, social and environmental sustainability implications of existing products and processes to raise awareness of their place in the world. They compare their predicted implications with real-world case studies, and recognise that designs and technologies can affect people and their environments. They become aware of the role of designers and technologists and how they think about the way a product might change in the future. In this case, exploring the impact of discarded plastic bags on the environment and the effectiveness of recycling plastic materials.

Students become aware of the appropriate ways to manage their time and focus. With teacher guidance, they identify and list criteria for success and the major steps needed to complete a design task. They demonstrate an understanding of the importance of planning when designing solutions, in particular when collaborating. Finally, students should identify safety issues and learn to follow simple safety rules when producing designed solutions.  

Design and Technologies knowledge and understanding 

Investigate how forces and the properties of materials affect the behaviour and performance of a product or system and how systems can be enhanced through appropriate manipulation and design. 

  • using available local materials and experimentation to solve problems requiring forces including identifying inputs (what goes in to the system), processes (what happens within the system) and outputs (what comes out of the system), for example in a bridge design, the materials and construction processes are inputs; the internal forces acting on materials in the bridge are processes; and outputs may include the strength of the bridge to withstand various loads.
  • conducting investigations to understand the properties and characteristics of materials and forces that may affect the behaviour and performance of a product or system, for example different truss designs and ways of joining paddle pop sticks; 
  • deconstructing a product or system to identify how motion and forces affect behaviour, for example using computer simulations to explore different forces and materials in the bridge systems; 
  • examining models (physical and virtual) to identify how different forces can be used in the design of a bridge to improve its construction;
  • identifying and exploring an engineered product or system, in this case a bridge, to explore properties and construction relationships when designing and producing, for example a a bridge to carry a load.

Design and Technologies processes and production skills 

Critique, explore and investigate needs or opportunities for designing and test and evaluate a variety of technologies, materials, systems, tools and techniques to produce designed solutions.

  • discussing the different uses of materials in a range of clothing products;
  • testing a range of materials under different conditions for suitability including sustainability considerations and identifying appropriate tools, equipment and techniques; 
  • selecting materials and appropriate joining techniques to create working models; 
  • compiling the criteria for success and planning processes as a class, for example recording a procedure or creating time plans; 
  • examining the structure and production of everyday products, services and environments to enhance their own design ideas; and
  • comparing the amount of waste that would be produced from different design and development options. 

Generate, develop, evaluate, communicate and document design ideas and design decisions using manual and digital technologies.

  • generating a range of design ideas for intended clothing products; 
  • visualising and exploring design ideas by creating thumbnail drawings, models and labelled drawings to explain features and modifications;
  • planning, sharing and documenting ideas and processes using digital tools such as a class blog or collaborative document; 
  • exploring ways of joining, connecting and assembling components that ensure success; 
  • evaluating and revising design ideas, choosing one that meets class-developed criteria for success and includes consideration of ethics, social values and sustainability; and 
  • recognising the sustainability implications of selected designed solutions. 

Select materials, components, tools and equipment using safe and sustainable work practices to produce and evaluate designed solutions based on identified criteria for success for technologies contexts.

  • using tools accurately when measuring, marking and cutting; and explaining why accuracy is important in designing and making, for example creating a template;
  • using appropriate technology terms to confidently describe and share with others procedures and techniques for making, for example cutting and joining materials; 
  • selecting and using materials, components, tools, equipment and processes with consideration of the environmental impact at each stage of the production process; 
  • demonstrating safe, responsible and cooperative work practices when making designed solutions, for example building a model bridge; 
  • managing time and resource allocation throughout production; and
  • reflecting on designed solutions to critique and assess suitability, sustainability and enterprise opportunities and how well they meet identified criteria for success.


Note that while knowledge and understanding will generally not address all aspects, completing design challenges will usually involve all aspects of the Design and Technologies processes and production skills.

In this activity students would go through the design process by completing a design challenge that would involve students approaching the problem of creating an item of formal attire completely from plastic bags:

  1. Designing a solution by understanding what is required in their design brief, researching existing solutions and who designs these, creatively ideating as many possible new solutions as they can, researching and exploring the properties of different materials and their potential use in a bridge design, and exploring different ways that paddle-pop sticks can be joined together;

  2. Developing a solution by following their plan, learning the processes involved in working through a series of steps, using various tools such as tape, glue, elastic bands, etc; and

  3. Evaluating their solution by testing to see if it is durable (i.e. does not fall apart under load), spans the required distance, etc. Finally they should present their solutions and speak to how it meets their design brief and how they achieved this by working through the design process.

































































The following details those aspects of the Australian Curriculum addressed by the activity:

Year 3 to Year 4 Content Descriptions and Elaborations 

Design and Technologies knowledge and understanding 

Recognise factors that impact on the design of products, services and environments including the role of designers and technologists to meet local community needs.

  • exploring factors that impact on design decisions, for example the impact of social values of people on the development of technologies to meet their needs or the impact of natural disasters on design of constructed environments;
  • investigating materials, components, tools and equipment, including using digital technologies, to discover their characteristics and properties, how they can be used sustainably and their impact in the future; 
  • critiquing designed products, services and environments to establish the factors that influence the design and use of common technologies, for example the characteristics that contribute to an energy-efficient cooking utensil such as a wok; the suitability and sustainability of particular timbers; 
  • exploring materials for their appropriateness, for example materials for a new sun-shade product; 
  • examining the suitability of a service or everyday system and proposing improvements, for example a water saving system for a bathroom at home; and 
  • considering the impact of environments on users, for example a school vegetable garden, a protected outdoor play area. 

Investigate the effectiveness and sustainability of a range of technologies, materials, systems, tools and equipment that support local community needs.

  • investigating technologies, materials, systems, tools and equipment for suitability when designing and making a product, service or environment, for example a toy for a young child, a composting system for household waste management, raised garden beds for the elderly; 
  • conducting experiments and tests to understand the properties of materials, for example strength, durability, warmth, elasticity; 
  • exploring local constructed environments to compare how buildings were constructed in the past and in the present;
  • comparing how different components interrelate and complement each other in a finished product, service or environment, for example investigating joining processes for a variety of materials in the production of common products; 
  • critiquing products, services and constructed environments from a range of technologies contexts with consideration of sustainable practices and impact on the local community; and
  • investigating the mass production of products to ensure standardisation, for example students setting up a production line to produce a product for a school fete.

Recognise the contribution food and fibre production and food technologies make to modern and traditional societies. 

  • reading the labels on food products to identify their country of origin;
  • identifying the areas in Australia and Asia where major food or fibre plants and animals are grown or bred when designing environments for food and fibre production, for example the wheat and sheep belts, areas where sugar cane or rice are grown, northern Australia’s beef industry;
  • exploring environments which could improve plant or animal production, for example a greenhouse, animal housing, safe bird shelters; 
  • describing ideal conditions for successful plant and animal production including how climate and soils affect production and availability of foods, for example Aboriginal seasons and food availability when designing production systems; 
  • recognising the benefits contemporary food technology provides for health and food safety and ensuring that a wide variety of food is available to provide a balanced diet, for example a healthy lunch for a student in Year 3 using produce from the school vegetable garden; 
  • investigating contemporary methods of food preservation such as freezing and preserving when designing a food product.

Investigate how forces and the properties of materials affect the behaviour and performance of a product or system and how systems can be enhanced through appropriate manipulation and design. 

  • using available local materials and experimentation to solve problems requiring forces including identifying inputs (what goes in to the system), processes (what happens within the system) and outputs (what comes out of the system), for example sports shoes that use friction; 
  • conducting investigations to understand the properties and characteristics of materials and forces that may affect the behaviour and performance of a product or system, for example woomera design; 
  • deconstructing a product or system to identify how motion and forces affect behaviour; 
  • exploring how movement can be initiated by combining materials and using forces, for example releasing a wound rubber band to propel a model boat; 
  • examining models to identify how forces can be used in the design of a toy;
  • identifying and exploring an engineered product or system to explore properties and construction relationships when designing and producing, for example a structure that floats; a bridge to carry a load; a waterproof container.

Design and Technologies processes and production skills 

Critique, explore and investigate needs or opportunities for designing and test and evaluate a variety of technologies, materials, systems, tools and techniques to produce designed solutions.

  • discussing the different uses of materials in a range of products;
  • testing a range of materials under different conditions for suitability including sustainability considerations and identifying appropriate tools, equipment and techniques; 
  • selecting materials and appropriate joining techniques to create working models; 
  • compiling the criteria for success and planning processes as a class, for example recording a procedure or creating time plans; 
  • examining the structure and production of everyday products, services and environments to enhance their own design ideas; and
  • comparing the amount of waste that would be produced from different design and development options. 

Generate, develop, evaluate, communicate and document design ideas and design decisions using manual and digital technologies.

  • generating a range of design ideas for intended products, services, environments or systems; 
  • visualising and exploring design ideas by creating thumbnail drawings, models and labelled drawings to explain features and modifications;
  • planning, sharing and documenting ideas and processes using digital tools such as a class blog or collaborative document; 
  • exploring ways of joining, connecting and assembling components that ensure success, and the impact ICT has on these processes; 
  • evaluating and revising design ideas, choosing one that meets class-developed criteria for success and includes consideration of ethics, social values and sustainability; and 
  • recognising the sustainability implications of selected designed solutions. 

Select materials, components, tools and equipment using safe and sustainable work practices to produce and evaluate designed solutions based on identified criteria for success for technologies contexts.

  • using tools accurately when measuring, marking and cutting; and explaining why accuracy is important in designing and making, for example creating a template;
  • using appropriate technology terms to confidently describe and share with others procedures and techniques for making, for example cutting and joining materials; 
  • selecting and using materials, components, tools, equipment and processes with consideration of the environmental impact at each stage of the production process; 
  • demonstrating safe, responsible and cooperative work practices when making designed solutions, for example building a model windmill with moving sails; 
  • managing time and resource allocation throughout production; and
  • reflecting on designed solutions to critique and assess suitability, sustainability and enterprise opportunities and how well they meet identified criteria for success.

Year 3 to Year 4 Achievement Standard 

By the end of Year 4 students explain how products, services and environments have been designed to best meet people’s current and future needs in the local community and describe how designers and technologists contribute to meeting needs. They describe the properties and characteristics of technologies, materials and systems for a range of technologies contexts

Students describe design situations. They use a range of media and methods, including digital technologies to investigate, generate, communicate and evaluate design ideas, including making scaled models and annotating drawings. Students plan and sequence major steps in design and production and make design decisions. They document their design decisions and processes. They adopt sustainable and safe work practices as they use appropriate materials, components, tools and equipment correctly to produce designed solutions for a range of technologies contexts. They judge the success of the product, service or environment against student-identified criteria.



Here is a bonus example that I prepared before realising that it was more appropriate for F-2, but it is a good case in point that most design challenges can be used at all age levels, though certain curriculum outcomes are more easily addressed at particular year groupings.


Design Challenge Example

A design challenge in the context of Materials and Technologies Specialisations could involve:

Formal Dress 

Design, create and test an innovative item of formal attire completely from plastic bags;

This could address:

Students developing a sense of self and ownership of their ideas and thinking in relation to their peers, communities and as a consumer. Students should explore creative and innovative ideas and alternatives and establish their own design skills. Students learn to harness their creative ideas and imaginative approaches to achieve designed products, services and environments through planning and awareness of the properties and characteristics of materials and the use of tools and equipment. They learn to reflect on their actions to refine their working and develop their decision-making skills. 

Using manual and digital technologies students represent their ideas, for example clarifying ideas by drawing freehand annotated diagrams; modelling objects as three-dimensional images from different views by visualising rotating images and using materials. Students recognise techniques for documenting design and production ideas such as basic drawing symbols and use simple flow diagrams of their construction and testing processes. 

Students examine personal, social and environmental sustainability implications of existing products and processes to raise awareness of their place in the world. They compare their predicted implications with real-world case studies, and recognise that designs and technologies can affect people and their environments. They become aware of the role of designers and technologists and how they think about the way a product might change in the future. In this case, exploring the impact of discarded plastic bags on the environment and the effectiveness of recycling plastic materials.

Students become aware of the appropriate ways to manage their time and focus. With teacher guidance, they identify and list criteria for success and the major steps needed to complete a design task. They demonstrate an understanding of the importance of planning when designing solutions, in particular when collaborating. Finally, students should identify safety issues and learn to follow simple safety rules when producing designed solutions.  

Design and Technologies knowledge and understanding 

Recognise factors that impact on the design of products, services and environments including the role of designers and technologists to meet local community needs.

  • exploring factors that impact on design decisions, for example the impact of where the clothing is to be worn, ease of putting it on and taking it off, how long it should last, vigour of movement it should withstand, etc.;
  • investigating materials, components, tools and equipment, including using digital technologies, to discover their characteristics and properties, how they can be used sustainably and their impact in the future. Student should research how clothing is made, the materials involved, ways of joining materials, etc.; 
  • critiquing designed products, services and environments to establish the factors that influence the design and use of common technologies, for example students could compare different materials, joining methods, etc. in a range of tests from water resistance, stretching, ripping etc.; 
  • exploring materials for their appropriateness, for example some materials may be too expensive, environmentally damaging, see through, etc.;  

Investigate the effectiveness and sustainability of a range of technologies, materials, systems, tools and equipment that support local community needs.

  • investigating technologies, materials, systems, tools and equipment for suitability when designing and making a product, service or environment, for example learning how to melt plastics safely together, use a sewing machine, cutting plastics safely, etc.; 
  • conducting experiments and tests to understand the properties of materials, for example strength, durability, warmth, elasticity; 
  • comparing how different components interrelate and complement each other in a finished product, service or environment, for example investigating joining processes for a variety of materials, can plastic join well with cardboard, etc.; 
  • critiquing products, services and constructed environments from a range of technologies contexts with consideration of sustainable practices and impact on the local community; and
  • investigating the mass production of products to ensure standardisation, for example students could consider what would be involved in producing a lot of items, e.g. one for each student, and how these could be customised for height, gender, colour preference etc.

Design and Technologies processes and production skills 

Critique, explore and investigate needs or opportunities for designing and test and evaluate a variety of technologies, materials, systems, tools and techniques to produce designed solutions.

  • discussing the different uses of materials in a range of clothing products;
  • testing a range of materials under different conditions for suitability including sustainability considerations and identifying appropriate tools, equipment and techniques; 
  • selecting materials and appropriate joining techniques to create working models; 
  • compiling the criteria for success and planning processes as a class, for example recording a procedure or creating time plans; 
  • examining the structure and production of everyday products, services and environments to enhance their own design ideas; and
  • comparing the amount of waste that would be produced from different design and development options. 

Generate, develop, evaluate, communicate and document design ideas and design decisions using manual and digital technologies.

  • generating a range of design ideas for intended clothing products; 
  • visualising and exploring design ideas by creating thumbnail drawings, models and labelled drawings to explain features and modifications;
  • planning, sharing and documenting ideas and processes using digital tools such as a class blog or collaborative document; 
  • exploring ways of joining, connecting and assembling components that ensure success; 
  • evaluating and revising design ideas, choosing one that meets class-developed criteria for success and includes consideration of ethics, social values and sustainability; and 
  • recognising the sustainability implications of selected designed solutions. 

Select materials, components, tools and equipment using safe and sustainable work practices to produce and evaluate designed solutions based on identified criteria for success for technologies contexts.

  • using tools accurately when measuring, marking and cutting; and explaining why accuracy is important in designing and making, for example creating a template;
  • using appropriate technology terms to confidently describe and share with others procedures and techniques for making, for example cutting and joining materials; 
  • selecting and using materials, components, tools, equipment and processes with consideration of the environmental impact at each stage of the production process; 
  • demonstrating safe, responsible and cooperative work practices when making designed solutions, for example building a model windmill with moving sails; 
  • managing time and resource allocation throughout production; and
  • reflecting on designed solutions to critique and assess suitability, sustainability and enterprise opportunities and how well they meet identified criteria for success.


Note that while knowledge and understanding will generally not address all aspects, completing design challenges will usually involve all aspects of the Design and Technologies processes and production skills.

In this activity students would go through the design process by completing a design challenge that would involve students approaching the problem of creating an item of formal attire completely from plastic bags:

  1. Designing a solution by understanding what is required in their design brief, researching existing solutions and who designs these, creatively ideating as many possible new solutions as they can, researching and exploring the properties of different materials and their potential use as clothing, and exploring different ways that cloths are made by joining materials together;

  2. Developing a solution by following their plan, learning the processes involved in working through a series of steps, using various tools such as scissors, sewing needles, tape, glue, staplers, etc; and

  3. Evaluating their solution by testing to see if it is durable (i.e. does not fall apart when worn), is identifiably an item of formal attire, and looks good. Finally they should present their solutions and speak to how it meets their design brief and how they achieved this by working through the design process.
































































The following details those aspects of the Australian Curriculum addressed by the activity:

Year 3 to Year 4 Content Descriptions and Elaborations 

Design and Technologies knowledge and understanding 

Recognise factors that impact on the design of products, services and environments including the role of designers and technologists to meet local community needs.

  • exploring factors that impact on design decisions, for example the impact of social values of people on the development of technologies to meet their needs or the impact of natural disasters on design of constructed environments;
  • investigating materials, components, tools and equipment, including using digital technologies, to discover their characteristics and properties, how they can be used sustainably and their impact in the future; 
  • critiquing designed products, services and environments to establish the factors that influence the design and use of common technologies, for example the characteristics that contribute to an energy-efficient cooking utensil such as a wok; the suitability and sustainability of particular timbers; 
  • exploring materials for their appropriateness, for example materials for a new sun-shade product; 
  • examining the suitability of a service or everyday system and proposing improvements, for example a water saving system for a bathroom at home; and 
  • considering the impact of environments on users, for example a school vegetable garden, a protected outdoor play area. 

Investigate the effectiveness and sustainability of a range of technologies, materials, systems, tools and equipment that support local community needs.

  • investigating technologies, materials, systems, tools and equipment for suitability when designing and making a product, service or environment, for example a toy for a young child, a composting system for household waste management, raised garden beds for the elderly; 
  • conducting experiments and tests to understand the properties of materials, for example strength, durability, warmth, elasticity; 
  • exploring local constructed environments to compare how buildings were constructed in the past and in the present;
  • comparing how different components interrelate and complement each other in a finished product, service or environment, for example investigating joining processes for a variety of materials in the production of common products; 
  • critiquing products, services and constructed environments from a range of technologies contexts with consideration of sustainable practices and impact on the local community; and
  • investigating the mass production of products to ensure standardisation, for example students setting up a production line to produce a product for a school fete.

Recognise the contribution food and fibre production and food technologies make to modern and traditional societies. 

  • reading the labels on food products to identify their country of origin;
  • identifying the areas in Australia and Asia where major food or fibre plants and animals are grown or bred when designing environments for food and fibre production, for example the wheat and sheep belts, areas where sugar cane or rice are grown, northern Australia’s beef industry;
  • exploring environments which could improve plant or animal production, for example a greenhouse, animal housing, safe bird shelters; 
  • describing ideal conditions for successful plant and animal production including how climate and soils affect production and availability of foods, for example Aboriginal seasons and food availability when designing production systems; 
  • recognising the benefits contemporary food technology provides for health and food safety and ensuring that a wide variety of food is available to provide a balanced diet, for example a healthy lunch for a student in Year 3 using produce from the school vegetable garden; 
  • investigating contemporary methods of food preservation such as freezing and preserving when designing a food product.

Investigate how forces and the properties of materials affect the behaviour and performance of a product or system and how systems can be enhanced through appropriate manipulation and design. 

  • using available local materials and experimentation to solve problems requiring forces including identifying inputs (what goes in to the system), processes (what happens within the system) and outputs (what comes out of the system), for example sports shoes that use friction; 
  • conducting investigations to understand the properties and characteristics of materials and forces that may affect the behaviour and performance of a product or system, for example woomera design; 
  • deconstructing a product or system to identify how motion and forces affect behaviour; 
  • exploring how movement can be initiated by combining materials and using forces, for example releasing a wound rubber band to propel a model boat; 
  • examining models to identify how forces can be used in the design of a toy;
  • identifying and exploring an engineered product or system to explore properties and construction relationships when designing and producing, for example a structure that floats; a bridge to carry a load; a waterproof container.

Design and Technologies processes and production skills 

Critique, explore and investigate needs or opportunities for designing and test and evaluate a variety of technologies, materials, systems, tools and techniques to produce designed solutions.

  • discussing the different uses of materials in a range of products;
  • testing a range of materials under different conditions for suitability including sustainability considerations and identifying appropriate tools, equipment and techniques; 
  • selecting materials and appropriate joining techniques to create working models; 
  • compiling the criteria for success and planning processes as a class, for example recording a procedure or creating time plans; 
  • examining the structure and production of everyday products, services and environments to enhance their own design ideas; and
  • comparing the amount of waste that would be produced from different design and development options. 

Generate, develop, evaluate, communicate and document design ideas and design decisions using manual and digital technologies.

  • generating a range of design ideas for intended products, services, environments or systems; 
  • visualising and exploring design ideas by creating thumbnail drawings, models and labelled drawings to explain features and modifications;
  • planning, sharing and documenting ideas and processes using digital tools such as a class blog or collaborative document; 
  • exploring ways of joining, connecting and assembling components that ensure success, and the impact ICT has on these processes; 
  • evaluating and revising design ideas, choosing one that meets class-developed criteria for success and includes consideration of ethics, social values and sustainability; and 
  • recognising the sustainability implications of selected designed solutions. 

Select materials, components, tools and equipment using safe and sustainable work practices to produce and evaluate designed solutions based on identified criteria for success for technologies contexts.

  • using tools accurately when measuring, marking and cutting; and explaining why accuracy is important in designing and making, for example creating a template;
  • using appropriate technology terms to confidently describe and share with others procedures and techniques for making, for example cutting and joining materials; 
  • selecting and using materials, components, tools, equipment and processes with consideration of the environmental impact at each stage of the production process; 
  • demonstrating safe, responsible and cooperative work practices when making designed solutions, for example building a model windmill with moving sails; 
  • managing time and resource allocation throughout production; and
  • reflecting on designed solutions to critique and assess suitability, sustainability and enterprise opportunities and how well they meet identified criteria for success.

Year 3 to Year 4 Achievement Standard 

By the end of Year 4 students explain how products, services and environments have been designed to best meet people’s current and future needs in the local community and describe how designers and technologists contribute to meeting needs. They describe the properties and characteristics of technologies, materials and systems for a range of technologies contexts

Students describe design situations. They use a range of media and methods, including digital technologies to investigate, generate, communicate and evaluate design ideas, including making scaled models and annotating drawings. Students plan and sequence major steps in design and production and make design decisions. They document their design decisions and processes. They adopt sustainable and safe work practices as they use appropriate materials, components, tools and equipment correctly to produce designed solutions for a range of technologies contexts. They judge the success of the product, service or environment against student-identified criteria.


Elaboration



In completing this or other design challenges, you will need to demonstrate the design process, taking a given problem through each of the stages of the process.

The design stage should show your identification and clarification of the problem, specifying any assumptions you have made with regards to the problem, and identifying what will determine a successful solutions (ensuring that these aspects can be tested).

The next step of the design stage is to research existing solutions to the problem, the different materials, tools, and systems related to the problem, to ideate as many different solutions as you can to solve the problem, create prototypes to compare possible solutions on a small scale, draw design plans and processes, and detail the reasoning behind your choice of which solution you will develop.

The development stage should detail your construction of a solution, the problems you encounter, and your solutions to these problems.

The testing and evaluation phase should determine how well your solution solves the problem you identified, with each factor measured in some way and based on this testing, an evaluation made to determine if the solution developed is the best possible or if other solutions should be explored from what has been learnt.

If necessary, the design cycle should be continued until the best possible solution has been derived (within constraints such as available time and resources).

As seen in the above examples, a design challenge can address a wide range of the Knowledge and Understanding; and Processes and Production Skills to be developed from Year 3 to Year 4. While not all possible aspects must be addressed each year, sufficient aspects should be completed to ensure that all aspects are covered in the year grouping with some overlap to enable students multiple opportunities. In general, Processes and Production Skills will be addressed each year with Knowledge and Understanding varying depending upon the chosen context.
 
For a Year 3 to Year 4 unit outline, you should detail 10 hours of learning activities  over 18 weeks including at least one design challenge such as that described for the Formal Dress design challenge. Other activities can be included that usually complement the main design challenge, such as learning to sew, testing materials, etc. but do not constitute design challenges in themselves or only part of a challenge e.g. just a testing and evaluation of a particular solution.

The unit outline you develop should meet the requirements of the Australian Curriculum: Technologies and address one of the contexts: Materials and Technologies, Food and Fibre Production/Food Technologies; or Engineering Principles and Systems. You may include design challenges you explored for Level 3 tasks but you only need to describe how they would be taught.

Your unit should indicate 1. the learning activities students will undertake and the time to be spent on them (innovation), 2. the Knowledge and Understanding and Processes and Production Skills that the unit will develop in students (interpretation), and 3. how these will be assessed (analysis). 





Year 3 to Year 4 Digital Technologies (Old Draft)


Digital Technologies studies from Year 3 to Year 4 continue to develop their computational thinking skills by automating simple programming and data processing tasks.

By the end of Year 4 students must have had the opportunity to design, produce and evaluate digital technology solutions to a range of problems that include the following concepts:

  • Patterns:  represent familiar types of data, make judgments about information systems, and suggest creative applications; 
  • Information Systems: Collect data from different sources and turn it into information;
  • Algorithms: Define simple problems, follow and describe simple algorithms, and develop simple programming solutions involving user input and branching (IF) commands;
  • Online: Safely and considerately collaborate and share information online with known audiences. 

Schools will generally allocate 20 hours of Digital Technologies studies per year.

One approach would be to have two design challenges each year, each of 10 hours duration, covering two or three concepts per year.

In each design challenge, students should have opportunities to experience designing, producing and evaluating services and environments as well as products. 

Often a design challenge, particularly in younger years, will involve several teacher directed activities to scaffold student independent project based learning. For example, learning how to use a software tool or technology such as a digital camera through introductory activities before student use these skills in a design challenge. 

From Year 3 to Year 4, students should complete design challenges in each of the four contexts of 

  • Patterns; (Decomposition, Pattern Recognition, Pattern Generalisation and Abstraction)
  • Information Systems; (Decomposition, Pattern Recognition, Pattern Generalisation and Abstraction)
  • Algorithms; and (Algorithm Design)
  • Online. (Online)

With an expected time allocation of 20 hours per year, it would be realistic to complete two or three design challenges each year and over the course of two years, address each of the concepts at least once.

In 3-4, students be thinking computationally by using the power of digital systems to explore abstractions and interpreting models of real world systems to describe how they work; understand the characteristics of different data; and be able to program with user input and branching (IF) commands through projects and design challenges.


Design Challenge Example

A design challenge in the concept of Algorithms could involve:

Scratch Adventure Story

Design, create and test a program in a language such as Scratch that involves making at least 10 choices;


Challenge specifications that can be tested could include: to give the reader at least 10 choices during the story, to have multiple story arcs recombine to sustain an overall storyline, etc.

This should address:

Digital Technologies processes and production skills 

Define simple problems, and follow and describe the algorithms (sequence of steps and decisions) needed to solve them 

  • experimenting with different ways of describing a set of instructions, for example writing two simple sets of instructions for telling a story in Scratch, one where the player types in a response, the other where they click on an icon/image; 
  • explaining to others how to follow technical instructions, for example providing instructions on how to play the story/game in Scratch; 
  • defining and describing the sequence of steps needed to incorporate multiple types of data in a solution, for example sequencing the steps in selecting a story option; and showing different images, text and sound effects based on this selection.
  • defining and describing the rules of a simple story/game so that it can be implemented. 

Design and implement simple visual programs with user input and branching 

  • designing and implementing a simple interactive story telling program, for example preparing the content and design of a simple story/game; 
  • using different design tools to record ways in which programs will be developed, for example creating storyboards or flowcharts to record relationships or instructions about content and processes in the story; 
  • exploring different features of user interfaces that appeal to people, for example simplifying the style and consistently placing icons or symbols in the story/game interfaces to reduce the frustrations of players; 
  • experimenting with different ways of instructing a program to make a choice, for example using an ‘IF’ statement (a common statement used to branch) to indicate that the program must make a choice between two different circumstances; and 
  • creating options for users to make choices in solutions, for example using another user input and branching mechanism such as buttons, typing in text, clicking on images, etc. 

Years 3 and 4 Achievement Standard 

By the end of Year 4, students should be able to define simple problems, follow and describe simple algorithms, and develop simple digital solutions involving branching. 













































The Scratch programming language can be downloaded from http://info.scratch.mit.edu/Scratch_1.4_Download

and numerous examples of choose your own adventure type stories/games are available as models.

Years 3 and 4 Content Descriptions and Elaborations 

Digital Technologies knowledge and understanding 

Recognise a variety of different types of data and explore different representations for the same data 

  • recognising that numbers, text, pictures, graphics, sounds, animations and videos are all forms of data when stored or viewed on a digital device such as a computer, mobile phone or electronic toy; 
  • experimenting with different ways that a number can be represented, for example expressing a given number through words, images and MAB blocks; 
  • using a table to reorganise information that includes sentences, and/or words, and/or numbers and/or pictures; and 
  • investigating codes that are representations of data, for example morse code and semaphore. 

Investigate how well information systems meet home, classroom and community needs and envisage new applications for existing information systems 

  • investigating how information systems are used in different settings, for example students collaboratively creating a short survey and collecting data about frequency of home usage of different information systems;
  • imagining and considering alternative uses and opportunities for information systems, for example verbally asking an information system for information when preparing a meal or visiting a museum or accessing the information using another interface; 
  • exploring different types of information systems that suit particular needs, for example considering how an existing information system could be used to help a person with disability; 
  • imagining how to bring two different types of information systems together to create a new system, for example bringing together a school learning system and a gaming system to create games-based learning; and
  • considering ways of managing social media to meet privacy needs, for example not divulging personal data such as photos or addresses and recognising that all electronic instructions/actions are traceable (electronic footprints).


Digital Technologies processes and production skills 

Collect, access and present different types of family, classroom and community data using simple spreadsheets, databases and other software to create information and solve problems 

  • using different techniques to present data as information, for example creating a column chart in a spreadsheet by colouring cells to represent different measurements; 
  • selecting appropriate formats or layout styles to present data as information depending on the type of data and the audience, for example lists, tables, graphs, animations and presentations; 
  • applying software functions and techniques to improve the appearance and usability of data, for example using colour, headings and labelling of images to organise and accurately identify data; 
  • using software to sort and calculate data when solving problems, for example, sorting numerical and categorical data in ascending or descending order and automating simple arithmetic calculations using nearby cells and summing cell ranges; and 
  • exploring different online sources to access data, for example using online query interfaces to select and retrieve data from an online database such as a library catalogue. 

Use a range of digital systems and peripherals for diverse purposes, and transmit different types of data 

  • using different peripherals to display information, for example using an interactive whiteboard or a data projector to show information to a group, or a printer to show information to a person; 
  • using specific peripherals to capture different types of data, for example using a digital microscope to capture cellular images of nature and a digital probe to capture numeric data; 
  • experimenting with different types of digital system components and peripherals to perform input, output and storage functions, for example a keyboard, stylus, touch screen or joystick to input instructions; a monitor, printer or tablet to display information; a USB flash drive and external hard drive as storage peripherals;
  • representing the conversion of analog to digital, for example listening to notes played on an instrument and recording the pattern of the notes as a series of numbers on a chart; and
  • recognising that a photograph can be transferred to a computer using a memory card and reader and that a message typed into the class journal appears on the screens of other students. 

Define simple problems, and follow and describe the algorithms (sequence of steps and decisions) needed to solve them 

  • experimenting with different ways of describing a set of instructions, for example writing two simple sets of instructions for a programmable robotic device; 
  • explaining to others how to follow technical instructions, for example providing instructions on how to capture and download photos from a mobile device; 
  • defining and describing the sequence of steps needed to incorporate multiple types of data in a solution, for example sequencing the steps in selecting and downloading music to create a book trailer; and
  • defining and describing the rules of a simple game so that it can be implemented. 

Design and implement simple visual programs with user input and branching 

  • designing and implementing a simple interactive program, for example preparing the content and design of a simple guessing game that provides options in English and an Asian language for each question and creating the game using a visual programming language; 
  • using different design tools to record ways in which programs will be developed, for example creating storyboards or flowcharts to record relationships or instructions about content or processes; 
  • exploring different features of user interfaces that appeal to people, for example simplifying the style and consistently placing icons or symbols in games interfaces to reduce the frustrations of game players; 
  • experimenting with different ways of instructing a program to make a choice, for example using an ‘IF’ statement (a common statement used to branch) to indicate that the program must make a choice between two different circumstances; and 
  • creating options for users to make choices in solutions, for example using another user input and branching mechanism such as buttons in a slideshow. 

Manage the creation, sharing and exchange of information with known audiences and apply agreed social protocols to protect people when communicating online 

  • using a range of online tools to share information, for example adding entries to a class blog for a project, participating in a web conference or online chat with an author, or participating in a forum on a specific topic;
  • organising and creating different types of information for sharing online, for example planning the sequence and appearance of an animation, using digital systems to create it and sharing it online with students from another school; 
  • managing collaborative projects in online environments, for example planning online meeting times and tasks when collaborating with students from another school on projects; 
  • discussing digital citizenship rules and behaviours for participating in an online community and sending emails; 
  • making ethical decisions when faced with dilemmas about reporting a person’s inappropriate online behaviour, for example using a ‘care-based’ criterion focusing on how individuals would like to be treated by others; and 
  • applying safe practices while participating in online environments with known people, for example checking the default privacy settings to ensure maximum protection of personal details when participating in an online chat with an expert.

Design and Technologies processes and production skills 

Critique, explore and investigate needs or opportunities for designing and test and evaluate a variety of technologies, materials, systems, tools and techniques to produce designed solutions.

  • discussing the different uses of materials in a range of products;
  • testing a range of materials under different conditions for suitability including sustainability considerations and identifying appropriate tools, equipment and techniques; 
  • selecting materials and appropriate joining techniques to create working models; 
  • compiling the criteria for success and planning processes as a class, for example recording a procedure or creating time plans; 
  • examining the structure and production of everyday products, services and environments to enhance their own design ideas; and
  • comparing the amount of waste that would be produced from different design and development options. 

Generate, develop, evaluate, communicate and document design ideas and design decisions using manual and digital technologies.

  • generating a range of design ideas for intended products, services, environments or systems; 
  • visualising and exploring design ideas by creating thumbnail drawings, models and labelled drawings to explain features and modifications;
  • planning, sharing and documenting ideas and processes using digital tools such as a class blog or collaborative document; 
  • exploring ways of joining, connecting and assembling components that ensure success, and the impact ICT has on these processes; 
  • evaluating and revising design ideas, choosing one that meets class-developed criteria for success and includes consideration of ethics, social values and sustainability; and 
  • recognising the sustainability implications of selected designed solutions. 

Select materials, components, tools and equipment using safe and sustainable work practices to produce and evaluate designed solutions based on identified criteria for success for technologies contexts.

  • using tools accurately when measuring, marking and cutting; and explaining why accuracy is important in designing and making, for example creating a template;
  • using appropriate technology terms to confidently describe and share with others procedures and techniques for making, for example cutting and joining materials; 
  • selecting and using materials, components, tools, equipment and processes with consideration of the environmental impact at each stage of the production process; 
  • demonstrating safe, responsible and cooperative work practices when making designed solutions, for example building a model windmill with moving sails; 
  • managing time and resource allocation throughout production; and
  • reflecting on designed solutions to critique and assess suitability, sustainability and enterprise opportunities and how well they meet identified criteria for success.

Years 3 and 4 Achievement Standard 

By the end of Year 4, students demonstrate different ways of representing a variety of familiar types of data. They make judgments about the usefulness of common information systems and suggest creative applications. 

Students define simple problems, follow and describe simple algorithms, and develop simple digital solutions involving branching.They collect and access data from different sources and use a range of digital systems and peripherals when creating information and digital solutions. Students apply agreed social protocols and safely use appropriate information systems when creating, managing and sharing information with known audiences. 


Elaboration


In completing this or other design challenges, you will need to demonstrate the design process, taking a given problem through each of the stages of the process.

The design stage should show your identification and clarification of the problem, specifying any assumptions you have made with regards to the problem, and identifying what will determine a successful solutions (ensuring that these aspects can be tested).

The next step of the design stage is to research existing solutions to the problem, the different materials, tools, and systems related to the problem, to ideate as many different solutions as you can to solve the problem, create prototypes to compare possible solutions on a small scale, draw design plans and processes, and detail the reasoning behind your choice of which solution you will develop.

The development stage should detail your construction of a solution, the problems you encounter, and your solutions to these problems.

The testing and evaluation phase should determine how well your solution solves the problem you identified, with each factor measured in some way and based on this testing, an evaluation made to determine if the solution developed is the best possible or if other solutions should be explored from what has been learnt.

If necessary, the design cycle should be continued until the best possible solution has been derived (within constraints such as available time and resources).
 
As seen in the above example, a design challenge can address either a very specific or wide range of the Knowledge and Understanding; and Processes and Production Skills (including Processes and Production Skills for Design and Technology) to be developed from Year 3 to Year 4. While not all possible aspects must be addressed each year, sufficient aspects should be completed to ensure that all aspects are covered in the year grouping with some overlap to enable students multiple opportunities. In general, Processes and Production Skills will be addressed each year with Knowledge and Understanding varying depending upon the chosen context.
 
For a Year 3 to Year 4 unit outline, you should detail 10 hours of learning activities  over 18 weeks including at least one design challenge such as that described for the Scratch Storytelling design challenge. Other activities can be included that usually complement the main design challenge, such as learning to use a video camera, testing trigger events, etc. but do not constitute design challenges in themselves or only part of a challenge e.g. just a testing and evaluation of a particular solution.

The unit outline you develop should meet the requirements of the Australian Curriculum: Technologies and address one or more computational thinking concepts: Decomposition, Pattern Recognition, Pattern Generalisation and Abstraction, and/or Algorithm Design.

You may include design challenges you explored for Level 3 tasks but you only need to describe how they would be taught.

Your unit should indicate 1. the learning activities students will undertake and the time to be spent on them (innovation), 2. the Knowledge and Understanding and Processes and Production Skills that the unit will develop in students (interpretation), and 3. how these will be assessed (analysis). 




Whole Course Discussion: How to develop effective Technologies units of work



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Tutorial Group Discussions:    How to develop effective Technologies units of work


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